Sovetsky Soyuz class Battleships (1938)

Soviet Navy

Stalin's mighty battleships: The Sovetsky Soyuz

In 1938, the final five-year plan, under the express direction of Stalin, included a fleet of 19 ships of the line. Among these were fast battleships to succeed the old dreadnoughts of the Gangut and Imperatritza Maria class. The Sovetsky Soyuz were defined from the authorization of January 21, 1938 concerning a class of four units.

Sovietsky Soyuz
Armour scheme ad other technical specs of the Sovetsky Soyuz

From the outset, it was planned to break the limitations of Washington Treaty and of London's. Admiral Isakov oversaw the project, retrieving data from an order dating from 1936 to the Ansaldo shipyards. They were laid in 1938 for the first two, Sovestky Soyuz (Советский Союз) and Sovietskaya Bielorussia (Советская Белоруссия), and 1939 for the Sovietskaya Ukraina (Советская Украина). The fourth (Sovieskaya Rossiya - Советская Россия) was canceled when it quickly became apparent that the project would require considerable resources. They were known for these names as "Stalin's Republics".

De facto, on blueprints, these battleships reached 65,000 tons at full load, 13,000 more than the contemporary Bismarck. They were in fact closer to a Yamato, although the Soviet Union as well as the Westerners did not know the existence of the latter, and none were planned for the Pacific fleet, although initial plans were for 15 battleships, enough for all three fleets at all times. Needless to say the objective was extremely optimistic.

A single ship costed 1,180,000,000 rubles. In 1939 as was was ongoing, it was decided to keep only three ships and scrap the fourth in order to divert resources to an expanded army rearmament program. By any means, and if construction received full support, delivery would have been at best around the winter 1944-45, at which point the German naval threat was non-existent.

These impressive battleships would have been a match, if completed, for any top-of-the-line battleships in existence in any Navy. Project 23 was in tonnage on par with both the Yamato class and Montana class but with the same armament of a 20,000 tons lighter battleship, only the usual nine 406 mm in triple turrets which were the norm from 1935 designs as it maximized protection, compensated by a greater range than any competitor. However Soviet armor plate industry was unable to produce cemented armor thicker than 230 millimeters (9.1 in), making the ship only shell-proof by multiplying inner layers of smaller thicknesses in order to disperse energy.

Design of Project 23

Design work started in 1935, in response to the known Scharnhorst then in completion. A commission spent some time visiting yards in Italy and the United States, purchasing drawings until Gio. Ansaldo & C. proposed a 42,000 long tons battleship armed with nine 406 mm pieces, inspired by the Litorrio they designed. Since the Italians did not match the caliber specified, the Soviet commission also contacted an USN arsenal which already worked on such caliber for USN Battleships, although the final artillery pieces were to be forged and assembled by Obukhov and tested.

Gibbs & Cox naval architects were also contacted for two designs: One of a conventional battleship and three hybrid battleship/aircraft carriers. All thee showed a raised flight deck and central, axial reduced superstructure while the main armament was still there forwards and aft. Back home however, Soviet engineers proceeded from the conventional design and drawn their own plans.

The 1936 TT3 initial design
The 1936 TT3 initial design

The first Tactical-Technical Requirement (ТТЗ) was issued on 21 February 1936 but soon judged too ambitious due to the limitations of the time, combining nine 460 mm guns for 36 knots, but under a displacement of 55,000 tons. Noth only forging local guns of such caliber was a challenge, but the powerplant needed in such small displacement was unrealistic at best. The design TT3b was revised in May 1936 by Admiral Orlov, C-in-C of the Soviet Navy, cutting the speed down to 30 knots, lowering the ain caliber to 406 mm and with less AA secondary batteries, while the displacement at 45,000 tons.

More acceptable, it was even authorized by other navies under the London treaty under the Anglo-Soviet Quantitative Naval Agreement of 1937. Final design of the TTZ (TT3c - unofficial denomination) was approved by Orlov on 3 August. Displacement was setup at 41,500 tons, armament to 9x 406 mm reinforced by a 12x 152 mm (6.0 in) battery and 12x 100-millimeter (3.9 in) AA plus 40x 37mm (1.5 in) AA guns. Maximum armor thickness as specified was 380 mm (15 in). Top speed as designed was 30 knots.

Soviet yards submitted their own designs and ultimately, Baltic Yards won with its KB-4 project. They later accepted on 22 November 1936 an increase of the deck armor in exchange for a displacement rising to 47,000 tons. Meanwhile, other designers lobbied Stalin for a radical increase in displacement and the latter eventually accepted in July 1936 to raise it to 56,000 tons. However this required a complete redesign, which coincided with the great purges. This unfortunate coincidence ruined all time tables and the redesign dragged on until early 1938.

The design completion was originally set to 15 October 1936, an incomplete version was presented in November. The navy's Shipbuilding Administration specified the numerous sub-designs to be completed, such as machinery plant and secondary gun mounts and turrets.

Hull changes

In all 27 million roubles would be spent in R&D throughout 1937, testing a hull form model in a ship model basin all along 1938. More than 100 models were tested, even one-tenth-scale launches for maniability at sea, while protection was seriously tested, a replica of the future armor decks on which a 500-kilogram (1,100 lb) bomb was dropped. Tests dictated to raise the main armor deck one leverl above and a splinter deck was added underneath. Reduced models of the underwater protection, compartimentation and bulges were also tested on two barges. New modifications were made in light of this, with multiple bulkheads as the best system estimated.

Last blueprints alterations

After the final design was submitted on 28 February 1938, blueprints were edited and sent to Baltic yard where the first ship was to be laid down on 15 July. However design changes were still ongoing at that stage. At the same time was it predicted the hull form will claim almost two knots, final specs were changed again, down to 27.5 knots (50.9 km/h; 31.6 mph) designed top speed; On the same time, a new propeller design was introduced and the centerline rudder deleted.

A calculated stern-down trim also obliged to cancel the two aft quarterdeck 100 mm turrets, and the armor belt height changed two times. In fact it was raised again in 1941 by State Defense Committee. Catapults were also modified, the single axial one replaced by two, on both sides of the quarterdeck. The final hull design was established as 269.4 m long overall for 38.9 m of beam and full load a draft of 10.4 m.

However revisions of the battle displacement showed it was to reach 60,000 metric tons standard and up to 67,000 metric tons (65,942 long tons) fully loaded. It was a "full-bodies" hull, with the torpedo protection system inside it rather than external, making the ship bulkier than it really needed to be. The 7.14:1 ratio dictated powerful turbines to overcome the drag. Decision was taken by Stalin to use three shafts instead of four, saving seom weight to the armored citadel while metacentric height was 3.4 meters and radius when turning 1,170 meters (3,840 ft).

406mm test mount
A still existing test mount for the 406 mm B-37 heavy naval guns (wow video). Such naval gun was used in the battery N°1 during the siege of Leningrad, the most impressive in the Russian arsenal up to that point, firing a total of 185 shells on German positions during the war.


Producing plates of cemented armor proved a real problem. The greater thickness achieved was 230 mm (9.1 in). Therefore it was chosen to use lower resistance cemented plates combined with face-hardened ones in November 1940. A problem soon emerged however as thinner plates were made harder, but also more brittle and ofte failed acceptance tests. They were provided anyway and in total 23,306 metric tons of the ship was made of armor protection. This was still exceptionally large, above the larger Yamato class.

Belt armor and the citadel were designed to resist 406 mm impacts as well as the decks a 500 kg bomb impact. Shells were best stopped if coming between 35° and 50° of angle from the centerline. The armor belt was thickened near the bow since the ship was narrower near the forward magazines and thicker armor installed there. This belt was 148.4m long (57% of the waterline), ad angled to 5° inwards. It was 220 mm (8.7 in) forward of the magazines.

The machinery spaces were protected by 375 mm plating with steps up to 420 mm (17 in) over the forward magazines and 380 mm (15 in) over the rear magazine. The belt ended with 30° angled transverse 285 mm bulkhead. It was downed to 250 mm on the lower deck and 75 mm (3.0 in) below. A 20 mm splinter beltwas added above up to the bow. A belt "step" 180 mm (7.1 in) was installed and a 365 mm transverse bulkhead was placed between the rear turret and the hull. The citadel was closed off by a 230 mm forward bulkhead, 180 mm rear backed by a splinter armor of 25 mm (0.98 in) above. Deck armor ranged from 25 mm (Forecastle) up to 155 mm (6.1 in) over the citadel, completed by a 50 mm middle deck and 100 mm top deck completed with a 220 mm waterline belt extension. There was also a 65 mm (2.6 in) arched deck covering the front section, and stern aft of the rear transverse bulkhead.

406 russian naval guns
Main 406 mm in elevation tests in a provisional covered mount (not a turret), same as above, profile. These 156 tons (with breech block) pieces of ordnance were the best in the world in terms of characteristics, besides the Japanese 18-in made for the Yamato, which had a superior caliber but slightly lesser range.

The main turrets frontal arc was covered by 495 mm (19.5 in) in additive (combined) thickness as stated above, while the sides and roofs were 230 mm (9.1 in). Gun ports were 18 mm strong, and while 60 mm bulkheads separated each barrel. Barbettes were 425 mm above the upper deck and the ammo wells were thinner underneath, but protected by the citadel. MK-4 turrets were protected by 100 mm faces, down to 65 mm for their sides with 100 mm barbettes down to to 65 mm for the ammunition wells. The MZ-14 turrets were uniformely prorected by 100 mm of armour. The conning towers were 425 mm in walls thickness forward, down to 220 mm aft. The bridge tower was protected by 75 mm (3.0 in) walls.

ASW protection was tailored to withstand a 750 kg (1,653 lb) warhead TNT equivalent. The ship must survive wth five adjacent compartments flooded (Rouhly also three torpedo hits). There was a Pugliese-type protection on 123 m in the mid-section with multi-bulkhead ended system 33 m further back 8.2 m in height amidships and 7 m fore and aft. The outer layers were 14 down to 10 mm and the inner bottom 7 mm. The Pugliese cylinder had 7 mm thick walls, and the main bulkhead was 35 mm thick with a 10 mm extention below and could be filled with fuel oil or water for damping the underwater explosion energy.


The machinery arrangement of the sovetsky soyuz was well compartimented and separated but wing shafts were rather long at 105 meters. Wing turbine compartments were located forward of boiler room No. 1 and aft of the No. 2 turret magazines and the axial one between boiler room No. 2 and No. 3. Initially turbines were to come from Cammell Laird but the Soviet commission was rebuffed by the £700,000 price tag, and they turned to Brown Boveri for £400,000, bringing with them design features from Cammell Laird.

The latter Swiss manufacturer created single-reduction, impulse-reduction geared turbines. At first a set of four was ordered, three for the first battleship and an extra one to be sent in Kharkov to be replicated, and having Russian-built turbines provided for the next battleships. Together, once fitted, these turbines were to deliver 201,000 shaft horsepower (149,886 kW). They were fed by six triangle-type water-tube boilers per boiler room. Working pressure was 37 kg/cm2 (3,628 kPa; 526 psi) at 380 °C (716 °F).

Design speed was 27.5 knots but estimated top speed on trials shoukd have been around 28 knots, thanks to the revised propellers forced heat. Fuel oil capacity as designed was 5,280 metric tons (peacetime. Top capacity in wartime was 6,440 metric) and endurance was estimated around 6,300 nautical miles to 7,680 nautical miles (14,220 km; 8,840 mi) at 14.5 knots in maximal capacity.

Armament of the sovetsky soyuz

Main armament

Three MK-1 triple turrets with electrical power housed each three 406 mm/40 B-37 guns. Depression was −2°, elevation 45° with a fixed loading angle of 6°. Rate of fire ranged from 2.0 to 2.6 rpm, but that's depended on the elevation. Elevate rate was 6.2°/sec., traverse 4.55° sec. 100 rounds, 1,108-kilogram (2,443 lb) were provided per gun. They exited the muzzle at 830 m/s giving a maximum range of 45,600 meters (49,900 yd) in maximal elevation, which had given these ships a very long reach: It was 39,000 m for the Iowa, even greater than the Yamato (42,000 m) and largely compensated for armour shortcomings in a naval gunfight.

Secondary armament

This secondary armament of the Sovetsky Soyuz comprised twelve B-38 152 mm/57 guns in six dual MK-4 turrets placed on each side of the main deck. Eight were aimed at all times in both frontal and chase. Elevation was −5° to +45°. Loading angle was fixed to 8°, decreasing their rate of fire to 4.8 rpm, up to 7.8 when the position was fixed.

These turrets could elevate at 13°/sec and 6°/Sec. in traverse. 170 rounds were provided, 55 kg HE shells per gun. Maximum range was 30,000 meters (98,425 ft) with a 950 m/s (3,100 ft/s) muzzle velocity. These figures were superior to the secondary battery of many battleships of the time.

Anti-aircraft defense of the Sovetsky Soyuz

Twelve 56-caliber 100 mm B-34 dual-purpose guns were installd, each with a twin MZ-14 turret, elevating to 85°, depressing to −8°. They were given 400 rounds each, 15.6-kilogram (34 lb) high explosive shells. Only by January 1941 all these turrets were installed. They can travers 12°/second, elevate at 10°/sec. Muzzle velocity was 895 m/s (2,940 ft/s), range 22,241 m against ships to to 9,895 meters (32,464 ft) ceiling.

Light AA comprised ten quadruple 37 mm 70-K gun. These water-cooled models were fitted on 46-K mounts and 1800 rounds per gun was supplied. Initial design only planned eight mounts but two more were in January 1941, on both sides of the forward superstructure. These mounts were fully enclosed, both against splinters and the muzzle blast of the larger guns. These shells were 732-kg (1.61 lb) rounds exiting the barrels at 880 m/s (2,900 ft/s) for an AA ceiling of 4,000 meters.
Beriev KOR-2 floatplane.

Observation and Fire control

Of course the Soviets advance in radars was nonexistent at this point. Classic telemeters were fitted. Each main turret roof was fitted with a DM-12, 12m concidence rangefinder. However main fire direction came from the three top-mounted KDP-8 fire-control directors. Their two 8-meter (26 ft 3 in) stereoscopic rangefinders tracked the target and measured the splashes distance.

Protected by 20 mm (0.79 in) armour, they were placed atop the rear superstructure, the tower-mast, and on the conning tower. The latter had 50 mm (2.0 in) of armor. In the main bridge was located the central operation TsAS-0 mechanical computer which gave firing solutions to each tower.

The secondary turrets of the Sovetsky Soyuz were served by four KDP-4t-II directors (4m rangefinders) mounted abaft the tower-mast and aft funnel. Also three SPN-300 stabilized directors were in charge of the main AA armament, either side of the forward funnel and atop the rear superstructure. For long range obersvation the ship depended on two Beriev-4 KOR-2 floatplanes. Each flew at 356 km/h (221 mph) for a range of 1,150 km (716 miles), and outside two MGs could carry up to 400 kg (880 lb) of bombs or depth charges.

Wow's rendition of the S. Soyuz
Wow's rendition of the S. Soyuz

Fate of the Sovetsky Soyuz

Sovietsky Soyuz photographed by a German plane on 26 June 1941 in the Baltic Yard

These ships were a considerable challenge as production facilities and skills were limited in USSR as shown by the Kirov series numerous issues. Production was moved to the brand-new Shipyard Nr. 402 in Molotovsk, while parts and equipments were to come from Leningrad and shipped via the White Sea Baltic Canal to Molotovsk.

Of course these plans collapsed after Operation Barbarossa. The turret shop at Nikolaev proved soon unable to fill the demands on the 406 mm guns mountings while propeller shafts were ordered in 1940 from Germany and the Netherlands. Shipbuilding steel was also plagued by quality problems which curtailed already meagre deliveries. In fact only 1,800 metric tons were delivered in 1939, a far cry of what was expected, ten times more.

Ultimately the face-hardened plates were no subsitute for proper cemented armor of large thickness. Foer propellers, the Brown Boveri turbines reach their intended yard in 1939 via Arkhangelsk, but the Kharkhovskii Turbogenerator Works which tried to copy it failed to deliver a single turbine before the German invasion. On 10 July 1941 by order of Stalin all three ships were suspended, little work went on just to keep the most advanced, Sovetsky Soyuz, to resume completion when a sedond order came on 10 September 1941, this time for a full cancellation, while all three hulls were stricken from the navy lists.

The Sovietskaya Rossiya, canceled in 1940 saw reused parts of its hull to build the Netron Menya floating battery. At the end of 1940, the hulls of the first two were 75% complete when it was decided to suspend the work. With the arrival of the Germans, the Russians withdrew trying to plasticize the hulls, but in the end, the damage was small. The Germans finished work in 1940, blowing Bielorussya's hull.

The Soyuz and Ukraina were partially dismantled, then totally after 1946. Compared to the American Iowa, they were much wider and heavier, better protected (500 mm for the turrets) but also slower, although having still a power available quite considerable (20,000 hp more). All three were to be assigned to a fleet, that of the north (Polyarni), the fleet of the Baltic (St. Petersburg) and Odessa for the Black Sea, where they would have been formidable opponents, with an unmatched gunnery range to protect them from an enemy response.

Sovietsky Soyuz photographed by a German plane in June 1942
Sovietzky Soyuz 1942
Battleship Sovetsky Soyuz probable appearance as built in 1942. Author's illustration

Sovietsky Soyuz
3D rendition of the Project 23 class on Reddit src
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Specifications 1941

⚙ Specifications

Displacement24,000t, 27-28,000t FL
Dimensions181.20 x 26.80 x 9.20 m
Propulsion4 shaft geared turbines, 25 Yarrow boilers, 42,000 hp. 23 knots max
Speed32.5 knots (60.2 km/h; 37.4 mph)
Range10,000 nmi (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)
Armament12 x 305 mm (4x3, 12 in)
-10 x 120 mm (4.7 in)
-6 x 76 mm AA (3 in)
-8 x 37 mm AA (2 in)
-8 x 12.7 mm (0.5 in) DShK MGs
-4 x 533 mm TTs (21 in) sub.
Armor230 to 254 mm max.
Aviation2x KOR-2 floatplanes

Other unfinished Soviet battleships

Apart the Tsarist Borodino, looking like a lightened, stretched-out Gangut, never completed, there were two known, REAL battleships which completion was never achieved: The modernized battlecruisers of the Konstadt class, the same plan, and in 1945, modernized battlecruiser/fast battleships of the Stalingrad class, which project evolved until 1951, when it was finalized, approved and construction launched, to be cancelled at the death of Stalin in 1953. We will develop both ships in future dedicated articles.

Kronshtadt class battlecruisers (1938)

The five-year plan approved in 1938 also included several battle cruisers. But since the Borodino of 1913, the Russians no longer had the experience. The first two units of the Konstadt class (Sebastopol was his sister-ship), were therefore defined a bit like super heavy cruisers of 20,000 standard tons, armed with 254 mm pieces.

It was thought at the time that the next step after the 203 mm caliber heavy cruisers would be this one. They were designed to deal with heavy cruisers, but not battleships. It was mainly a question of responding to the German Hipper, who were themselves well beyond the limits of the Washington Treaty.

Their design was revised six months later, this time to meet the Scharnhorst. Their caliber thus passed to 305 mm, and the tonnage climbed accordingly. But with 35,000 tons as standard, they were still respectful of the treaty, even though the head of the Kremlin did not care.

They had standard turbine groups but were close to those planned for the Sovietsky Soyuz battleships, developing considerable power of 230,000 hp, giving them a speed of 33 knots. They were retrospectively inferior to the Iowa. Their protection was relatively important, however, as they had a 230 mm armored belt and a 305 mm turret shield.

Started in July 1939 in Marti and Nikolayevsk, they were both suspended the following year, then captured on the arrival of German troops. The latter demolished the Sevastopol hull, while the Kronstadt was demolished in the 1950s.

Konstadt 1937
Kronstadt class probable appearance as built in 1941. Author's illustration

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⚙ Specifications

Displacement35 240t, 38 360t FL
Dimensions248 x 31,4 x 9,10 m
Propulsion4 shaft turbines, 231 000 cv. 33 knots max.
Armament9 x 305, 8 x 150, 8 x 100, 24 x 37, 8 x 12,7 mm AA HMGs, 4 planes.
Armor120 to 305 mm

wow Petropavlovsk wow Tallinnwow Riga

Stalingrad class battlecruisers (1945-51)

Sovetsly Soyuz armor protection
Armour protection scheme of the Stalingrad class

In 1944, various plans for reinforcing the fleet were approved, and studies were made on new battleships and cruisers. Project 24 ships, commissioned with Stalin's insistence, were upgraded Sovietsky Soyuz, with a reinforced DCA and a tonnage of 75,000 tonnes standard, suggesting that they would be close to 85,000 tonnes as far as the 1960s USS Enterprise aircraft carrier !

Stalin, despite all the persuasive force of Admiral Kusnetsov, continued to demand a fleet of classic lines, not wanting to hear about aircraft carriers. His intransigence certainly caused the Soviet navy to lag behind during the Cold War.

Alongside Project 24, Project 82 was set up to bring a heavy cruiser of naval superiority to the fleet: It had to be armed with 254 mm pieces, then at the insistence of Stalin who wanted us to take up the idea again. Kronstadt, pieces of 305 mm. Various projects were studied between 1945 and 1957.

Finally the Kremlin leader had insisted on making corsairs in the image of the German Deustchland. The project was finalized in 1948 and changed again until 1950. Finally, the Stalingrad and Moskva were started in the 50s, the first in December 1951, the second in October 1952.

In the end, these ships planned for a start in 1955 were large but light, because of their armor designed only to withstand the shots of American cruisers, armed with 203 mm pieces. This armor was in some places thick enough to be able to participate more of the rigidity of the immense hull than the protection.

They did not have float planes, but would certainly have operated helicopters. The 130mm cannons were double and rapid fire, the 45mm cannons and the 25mm were in quadruple carriages.

The work began slowly, the group responsible for the construction of the first assuring that it would be launched for the anniversary of the revolution on November 6, 1953. In March 1953, the death of Stalin caused the immediate cessation of the construction of the first two.

Kusnetsov, returning from his "exile" from the Pacific, firmly opposed to the plans of these ships, will nevertheless try to take advantage of the study efforts made with the launch of a new hybrid missile cruiser, the Kronstadt, in May 1955, but it was canceled a few months after the keel was laid.

Stalingrad 1955
Stalingrad class probable appearance as built in 1955. Author's illustration

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⚙ Specifications

Displacement36 500t, 42 300t FL
Dimensions278 x 32 x 9.20 m
Propulsion2 shaft turbo-electric turbines, 280,000 hp. and 35.5 knots max.
Armament9 x 304, 12 x 130, 24 x 45, 40 x 25 mm AA
ArmorFrom 180 to 240 mm max

Other Soviet battleships: Reality vs. Fantasy

From a game we will not mention here as it is obvious, several more designs seems to pop-out from hats, despite the fact they have little backing, at least in the West. To be convinced for example of the "Lenin" reality, once only need to google for it and see where the results are coming from. Let's be clear: The reputed and well-documented Conway's, confirmed by Jane's records is not shy for exposing projects, detailing even many Western proposals, same as French, US, Japanese projects, with force details and profiles.

However, nothing is said apart the Sovietsky Soyuz class above and the battlecruisers Kronshtadt (called "large cruisers"), as well as Izmail and Stalingrad classes for two other publications. Only a list of projects could be found in the declassified archives, with very few clues to dress any sincere portayal. In what is following, some of these paper proposals even lack a proper "project" denomination.

-Project 21 (wow's"Lenin"): Looking like a Russian version of the Rodney is its known as Project 21, a simple 1930 admiralty Study for a 35,500-ton Nelson class-style battleship.
-Project 24 (wow's "Kreml"): It is mentioned in the continuation program, with the type 23 as "prototypes", and decribed as a 1950 improved version of the type 23, in the 80,000 tons range.
-Project 25: It was a Study for a 30,900-ton light battleship, a cruiser-killer designed after the cancelled Project 22 and alongside the Project 68 Kronstadt class.

> "Pyotr Velikiy" - The alleged MGSh study for a fast armoured cruiser in 1907, here impersonated by the X variant of Projet 707 by Blohm und Voss in 1911, a 4x2 12-in, 21 knots armoured cruiser for the Baltic, but it can't be backed by Conway's. Most of the design studies were passed onto the Izmail/Borodino.

> The "Sinop" is allegedly a paper proposal designed by naval engineer Bubnov, based on a 1913-14 design for a successor to the Ganguts, in march 1914, with nine 406 mm guns in triple turrets made by Obukhov. The war cancelled all proposals. Conway's only overviewed the Borodino design, so the unnamed Sinop has little backing, if any.

Stalin's controversial ten-year naval plan In 1944 Stalin drawned a ten-year naval plan (1944-1955) and insisted on building battleships to the dismay of his chief advisor, naval minister Admiral Kuznetsov. The plan included ten battleships and battlecruisers. The BS were based on the prewar Type 23. They were indeed developed by the TsKB-17 and pre-project estimates for a complete design was 1945. The Project 24 was to be a 75,000 tons battleship, 30 knots, with nine 16-in guns like the previous ship.

It was also stated a secondary battery of 24x 5.1 in in twin turrets, and uniform 24 twin 45 mm plus 60x 25 mm AA guns. The armour scheme was raised to withstand a 1000 kg bomb hit, 16-in impact. It was also roomy enough for two catapults and six planes. A photograph was released which was lated debunked as one of the Stalingrad model. It is "impersonated" by the "Kreml" while the "Validovostok" is the initial 1936 Type A battleship developed before project 23, with no less than nine 457 mm/48 and a displacement above 75,000 tons standard.

The project 25 was in essence Battleship 'B' study, redesignated as Project 25. It was small battleship design for the Baltic and Black Seas. It was to hunt for treaty cruisers and German pocket battleships. Its design was accepted mid-1937 with both the armor scheme and machinery layout revised several times. Four were ordered, planed to start late 1937, early 1938, so before the Great Purge. Project 25 designers were arrested and executed and the whole design was later rejected as too weak for a battleship and cancelled in early 1938.

More serious and well-documented also are the various preliminary studies for the "Stalingrad" class, which are evolutions of the Kronstadt, and evolved well in the long term. A 1941 8-in cruiser revised by Stalin in 1945 to include a 12-in artillery, and first studies drafted by the TsKB-17 in 1943 up to 1947. So it was a post-war design by all means. These studies also included Kuznetsov ideas of a fast-firing cruiser with automated 9-in guns. This was in essence, a 39,500 tons, 32 or 35 knots cruiser design, validated in 1949. It was later passed to TsKB-16 in 1950 for final design, but by no means was a battleship. It was eventually named project 82, the Stalingrad class we know.

Read More:

Main SRC: Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1922-1946, 1947-1995
Russian and Soviet Battleships Hardcover (2003) by Stephen McLaughlin
The Lure of Neptune: German-Soviet Naval Collaboration and Ambitions, 1919-1941 By Tobias R. Philbin
Stalin's Ocean-going Fleet: Soviet By Jurgen Rohweree
Russian Naval Construction, 1905-45 By J.N. Westwood

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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