WW2 Polish Navy

Marynarka Wojenna

Poland has experienced many territorial vicissitudes in its history, wedged between its bulky Germanic neighbors and the Russian Empire, threatened in the south by the Turkish advance, it has developed a rich and ancient maritime culture. The Venetians have been great navigators since the end of antiquity, and the Eastern Scandinavian sailors and traders has much to do with the techniques developed by these navigators.
A commercial powerhouse of the Baltic, Poland had a fleet of impressive trade carracks in the XV-XVI centuries, including the huge "Peter of Gdansk". The know-how of the Polish shipyards are still recognized today in the world, their importance can be also measured by their political weight and their contribution to the emancipation of the Soviet sphere in the 90s.

Orp Destroyers preparing for Operation peking

Situation in 1920

In 1920, independent again with a newly liberated territory, Poland quicky constituted a modest fleet composed of heterogeneous ships of the German fleet ceded by the allies and captured Russian ships. Added to this was a division of territory with an enclavement of a region of East Prussia, the famous "Dantzig Corridor" the source of later discontent between neighbours. The Polish fleet was to be adapted to its lesser needs, the land borders representing a danger much more present than the safeguarding and the surveillance of a mere 90 miles of coastal front. This was even more true in 1936, with the advent of Hitler and the Third Reich, and on the other side an increasingly threatening Soviet state. The Poles managed to build a small modern and efficient naval force, with valuable units. If the initial plan of 1920 included 6 torpedo boats, 2 gunboats, 4 minesweepers, and river monitors, the industrial and economic situation was bad enough so that this first plan was never realized.

1926 construction program

It was not until 1926 and the "small program" of the KMW (the maritime direction) announced over 12 years the commissioning of 2 cruisers, 6 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats and 12 submersibles. Particularly important efforts were made for Gdynia Yard to be equipped as a large arsenal (with Brest and Kiel as models), and became the major naval base of the Polish fleet. These numbers were to be ready for 1940. One of the aspects of the Polish naval policy was the promised intervention of the French Navy in the event of a Russian attack since the alliance signed in 1921. In mid-1925, however, this plan was once again revised downward due to poor economic conditions and budget restrictions. Moreover, for the lack of sufficient equipment, Gdynia could not ensure the construction of the 4 destroyers and 6 submersibles finally entrusted to France. The plan was postponed and finally abandoned after the Great Depression of 1929.

Articles's list

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Burza and Wicher, resulting from the 1926 program Burza and Wicher, resulting from the 1926 program.

1933 construction program

From 1933, however, the Polish shipyards were able to build several good quality minesweepers in a short time (not the case of the French destroyers, built in 2-3 years). A little later, a large versatile minelayer was ordered from France. Polish authorities then turned to Great Britain. The two ambitious destroyers Grom were so heavily armed (probably among the fastest and most powerful in the world at their completion) that they made up for the abandoned construction of two cruisers. Two large ocean submersibles were also ordered this time from the Dutch, and financed by public subscription.

105 mm Bofors
A Polish 105 mm Bofors AA and dual purpose gun

In 1935 Germany reinstated compulsory military service and remilitarized the Rhineland, resulting in a new 6-year program developed by the KMW, including 8 destroyers, 12 submersibles, 12 minesweepers, 10 torpedo boats and one minesweeper. This was coupled with the construction of a huge industrial complex that would be connected with Gdynia and able to give Poland an industrial autonomy in the design of the next units. In September 1939, this plan was in progress. At this date, the Polish Navy included about thirty ships which details were as follows:

4 Destroyers: 2 Wicher class, 2 Grom class
4 torpedo boats: Mazur, 3 Podlahanin class
5 Submersible: 3 Wilk class, 2 Orzel class, 2 others under construction in France.
17 Miscellaneous: Minelayer Gryf, 6 Jaskolka class minesweepers, 2 Haller class gunboats, 4 Warsawa class river monitors, 2 Krakow class river monitors.

Polish Navy Operations from september 1939

The Polish Navy in september 1939 was caught mid-expansion. Polish Naval commanders decided to withdraw the main surface fleet, and sail asap to Great Britain. They decided to join the Allied war effort, preventing a useless slaughter and scuttling. The Peking Plan saw on 30 August 1939, 3 destroyers (ORP Błyskawica, ORP Grom, and ORP Burza) sailing to the British naval base at Leith in Scotland. They will operate in the future in combination with Royal Navy vessels against Germany. Also, two submarines managed to flee from the Baltic through the Skagerrak, reaching Great Britain soon after. One of them, ORP Orzeł, has been interned in Tallinn, Estonia, under Soviet supervision and traveled without maps to the British isles. However, three Polish submarines were interned in neutral Sweden, while remaining surface vessels were sunk by the Luftwaffe.

Survival: Operation Peking

Operation peking, ongoing

The invasion on Polish soil preceded the Luftwaffe was also supported by a massive deployment of the Kriegsmarine. The great arsenal of the Westerplatte which suppled the fleet at Gdynia, was shelled mercilessly by the old Schleswig-Holstein battleship while Stukas flew over all Polish ports, looking for targets: They claimed the Destroyer Wicher, torpedo-boat Mazur, minelayer Gryf, gunboat Haller, 6 minesweepers, and the monitor Milno. These three days of fury also testified of the destruction of countless installations, fortifications, petrol tanks, facilities, trains, further making impossible to organize a possible parade.

During these feverish hours, a plan was conceived in collaboration with the British: To prevent the fleet from being destroyed without fighting because of the overwhelming air and sea superiority of the Germans, the "Beijing operation" was to allow Polish ships to join the British Ports as soon as possible and under the protection of the Royal Navy and the RAF after the Straits of Denmark. This operation was planned with the British on the first day of the war. Thus 3 destroyers and 2 submersibles managed to join the Royal Navy and following the agreement negotiated by Count Raczynski, remained under Polish control but fully integrated in the Royal Navy organisation.

Marynarka Wojenna

The Free Polish Navy

ORP Zbik and Lwow
ORP Zbik and Lwow

Three submersibles left for the defense of the Hela Peninsula, did not find German ships to destroy and were forced to join neutral countries like Sweden after their country capitulated. They were immobilized there, but Orzel escaped and joined the British. Her career was quite successful afterward, sinking the German liner Rio de Janeiro. The "Pinsk Flotilla" in Poland was composed of armored river vessels, stationed on the Vistula. These riverine ships fought against the German forces before falling victim to bombs and field artillery. They were still recoverable but were scuttled in front of the Soviet advance.

Profile of the Orzel
Profile of the Orzel

Paradoxically, this was on the nucleus of escaped Polish units that was relaunched and eventually realized the initial 6-year plan, thanks to particularly generous British transfers. However, volunteers pouring in from the east and eagerness to fight were indeed decisive in Churchill's attitude towards the Poles. Not only did they fight with their excellent Grom class destroyers, but were also awarded 6 more destroyers (after Grom's loss in 1940) Garland, Type G, Hurricane, ex-French Hurricane captured in 1940, the Piorun (N class), Orkan (M class) and three Hunt class escort destroyers (Krakowiac, Kujawiak and Slazak) in 1941-42. All these ships performed admirably their tasks within the RN, fighting wherever the Poles were engaged, in the Atlantic, the Channel, the Arctic, or the Mediterranean. But the largest acquisitions the two planned cruisers were ex-D types (1918) light cruisers, the ORP Dragon and Conrad.

The Polish Navy in Detail

Gunners training on the riverine monitor Wiezy
Gunners training on the riverine monitor Wiezy

Since the Polish shore was only 142 km long, there was no need for a blue water navy, even for a strong coastal navy. Only a few ships could patrol and repel potential threats. Destroyers were well suited for that, with torpedoes that can cause major damage to any battleship, potent artillery and long range. From the initial four naval trawlers and two monitors the poles went to built nine submarines. Soviet Union was designated as the main enemy and the Polish fleet was to secure supply convoys from France in case of a war. Economic crisis and the German threat, were to wreck the plan, abandoned and reduced to three submarines ordered from France.

The Polish Navy in 1939

Grom class destroyers (1936)

ORP Grom
ORP Grom in 1940

In the absence of cruisers, many third rank marines chose to build powerful destroyers. This was the case for Poland with these two units built in Great Britain at Cowes. They were launched in 1936 and operational the following year. When they came out, they were the best and fastest destroyers in the world. Their artillery was impressive, with no less than seven guns of 120 mm in twin and a single mount. They also had quad heavy machine gun positions and Bofors AA, and could carry and laid 44 mines.

Two others, the Orkan and Huragan were started in Gdynia in 1938, but their construction was barely begun when they were captured and dismantled. These two ships, which were the pride of the Polish Navy, however, had to flee at the time of the invasion to avoid both the Stukas and a possible capture. It was the "Peking" operation that avoided the hopeless sacrifice of these units to allow them to reach the British Isles and from there continue the struggle.

ORP Grom

The two destroyers were rearmed, giving up their TT rear bench for a 102 mm AA gun. The Grom operated in Norway in May 1940 and was sank on May 5 by Stukas of Kwg-100. Bryslawicka survived this campaign and was prepared for escort missions. Her 120 mm guns were placed by four twin mounts of 102 mm AA, plus four 20 mm AA guns and four Bofors 40 mm. In 1942, the 102 mm central lookout was removed and the two TT banks were replaced. A type 271 radar was added. In 1944, Bryslawicka received a Type 291 radar, a 284 firing system and another Type 293 radar. She was still used intensively until September 1945 and became in 1947 the flagship of the new Polish fleet, was decommissioned in 1965 and preserved. She is currently exhibited at Gdynia.

Błyskawica in the Atlantic
Błyskawica in the Atlantic

Illustration of the Grom class, side and top

Wicher class destroyers (1936)

Wicher class DDs

Władysław Grabski government tried to obtain a large credit from France, with French stock owners and the new Caen shipyard, which only stood if it signed a contract with the Poles. On September 9, 1925 the government decided to purchase two destroyers to Caen shipyard for approximately 22 million złotys. The shipyard presented a plan for two modified Bourrasque-class destroyers and on April 2, 1926 the order was signed.

However, if the yard could deliver blueprints relatively fast, the ships were far from perfect. They were relatively slow and betrayed by a tall silhouette and handicapped by poor protection. It was revealed later they also had poorly designed watertight compartments and pipelines. In case of minor damage they could have been paralyzed. Stability was also poor due to the placement of the fuel tanks, high up on the superstructure. Through this, the shipyard's lack of experience was showing its true colors. Numerous other construction flaws were corrected after the ships's delivery by order of the Polish admiralty, but many issues were left unaddressed.

ORP Wicher

The Wicher class construction took four years, two years above schedule. The steam turbines has been provided by Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire in St. Nazaire. The armament came from the Cherbourg arsenal and Schneider-St Chamond armory. Both ships had the same French standard-issue four 130 mm guns and two triple 550 mm/533 mm/450 mm torpedo tubes banks, but they were complemented by Polish armament, two 40 mm wz. 28 AA Bofors guns, two 240 mm Thornycroft depth charge launchers and two Wz BH200 depth charge launchers, plus two 60 wz. 08 naval mines.

ORP Wicher was eventually launched on July 10, 1928, but finally commissioned two years later at Cherbourg. Wicher means "gale", as a reminder of the class French names of meteorological events. She arrived at Gdynia and was well covered by the press unaware of her limitations, as Polish's first modern warship. ORP Burza ("storm"), had to wait until 1932, four years after the initial deadline. The construction choices had been mainly political, with French financial interests, but left a desperate yard manager and an angry Polish staff as a result. ORP Wicher career was short: She was sunk during the first three days of the war by aviation. ORP Burza survived the war however and became a museum ship, scrapped in 1977.

ORP Burza as a museum ship in the 1960s
ORP Burza as a museum ship in the 1960s

Displacement: 1540t standard Dimensions: 106.90 x 10.5 x 3.5m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Loire turbines, 8 Normand Boilers, 6000 hp, 28 knots.
Crew: 162
Armament: 4 x 130 mm, 2 × 40 mm wz. 28 AA guns, 2×3 550 mm/533 mm/450 mm TTs, 2 × 240 mm Thornycroft & 2 × Wz BH200 DCT, 2 × 60 wz. 08 naval mines

Gryf, minelayer destroyer (1936)

Gryf minelayer

This ship was one of the largest in the Polish fleet. She had been designed for a wide variety of tasks but was disappointing in the latter: As a training ship and presidential yacht. Designed in France by Augustin Normand, she was heavily armed and rolled a lot, with a high metacentric height. In addition, she was too cramped and underpowered. Operational in February 1938, she was attacked and struck on 1 September by the German Luftwaffe. She then served as a floating battery in Hela and was bombed on September 3 and sunk for good. Part of her armament was later recovered to reinforce Hela's defense. The Germans towed the hull to Gdansk and she served as a training target before being finally raised well after the war and sent to shipbreakers in 1964.

ORP Gryf
ORP Gryf

Displacement: 2250t, 2900t FL
Dimensions: 103.20 x 13.1 x 3.6m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Sulzer diesels and 6000 hp, 20 knots.
Crew: 205
Armament: 6 x 120 mm (2x1, 2x2), 4 Bofors 40 mm AA (2x2), 4 MG 13,2 mm (2x2), 60 mines.

Wilk class submarines (1929)

Wilk 1939
ORP Wilk in 1939

These were French-built Normand-Fenaux type minelayer submarines. The Rys (1929), Wilk (1929) and Zbik (1931) came from AC de la loire, nantes, Augustin Normand and CNF. They were derived from the Saphir class, longer, with a 260 ft diving limit 2500 nautical miles of radius at 10 knots. Of double hull configuration, they carried 40 mines in ten separate wells, each with four mines. But the system proved unreliable. These were good sea boats but noisy and left oil trails. In addition to the tubes they had four bow TTs and two trainable external TTs in the French tradition, further aft.

In addition to a 100 mm/40 gun on the forward deck, she also carried a 40 mm bofors behind the kiosk for AA defense, replaced later by a twin 13.2 mm heavy MG mount. After the war broke out, none could escape to UK due to their limited range. Rys and Zbik took refuge in the Swedish port of Stavnas, later joined by Sep. All three were transferred to Loch Malar. Only Wilk managed to escape through the Skagerrak and joined the Royal navy, but served only until 1942, because of the lack of spare parts and their age and condition. The two others were returned to Poland and scrapped in the 1950s.


Displacement: 980t, 1250t FL
Dimensions: 78.5 x 5.9 x 4.2m
Propulsion: 2 shaft Normand-Vickers diesels, 2 emevtric motors and 1800/1200 hp, 14/9 knots.
Crew: 54
Armament: 6 x 550 mm (6, 1x2) TTs, 100 mm/40, Bofors 40 mm AA, 40 mines.

Wilk class subs

Orzel class submarines (1938)

The best Polish submarines by a fair margin were the two long-range cruisers built in the Netherlands at De Schelde and Rotterdam. They were 1400 tons, 84 m (275 feets) long boats tailored to attack German shipping in the Baltic and beyond. They were built by public subscription raised from 1935. These were large oceanic types with excellent fightng qualities, of the double hull type with five compartments. They could dive beyond 270 feets, and had a 7000 nautical miles radius at 10 knots. Orzel was commissioned in Feruary 1939, and arrived at Gdynia in April 1939 but made her trials in a hurry to avoid German sabotage in the Netherlands.

ORP Sep 1939
ORP Sep in 1939

However her sister-ship Sep was not ready in september and was interned at Stavnas, while Orzel was interned at Tallinn. She saw all her documents confiscated but later managed to sail off in the Baltic and get through the sund narrows in November, and later joined the UK. From there, she started a new wartime carrer. Her escape t Rosyth was applaud as she passed through German minefields and air and ASW patrols. She managed to sink the German steamer Rio de Janeiro but was ultimately lost probably becaiseuof a mine in the north sea in June 1940 while Sep was inactive during the war and returned to poland in 1945.

There was a modified Orzel class on paper by 1939. Both submersibles were to be built in France, at AC Augustin Normand and Loire, both of a modified Orzel type, with a 1550 tons displacement when diving, 87 m long, armed with twelve 550 mm tubes (four bow, four stern and two twin trainable banks on the surface), 20 torpedoes in store, two twin Bofors and possibly a single twin 13.2 mm heavy MG. Work was suspended in April 1939 and the hulls were later destroyed by the Germans to free the slipways.

Displacement: 1100t, 1473t FL
Dimensions: 84 x 6.7 x 4.17
Propulsion: 2 shaft Sulzer diesels, 2 Brown-Boveri electric motors and 4740/1100 hp, 20/9 knots.
Crew: 60
Armament: 12 x 550 mm (4 bow, 4 stern, 2x2 pressure hull) TTs, 105 mm/41, 1x2 Bofors 40 mm AA, 1x2 13.2 mm MG

Orzel class subs

Jaskolka class minesweepers (1939)

Six new minesweepers were in service in September 1939. Their construction began in Modlin and Gdynia in 1933 and ended in 1938 with the admission of the latter, the Zuraw. They were solid units, but slow and weakly defended. In fact, the six ships were stationed in Gdynia in September 1939 and were attacked by the Luftwaffe and seriously damaged or sunk and permanently lost. four will be salvaged, repaired, and returned to service under German supervision as TFA 11, 7 and 8, escaping destruction. Their retrocession took place in 1946, only to be scrapped in 1960.

Displacement: 183t
Dimensions: 45 x 5.5 x 1.37 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Nohab diesels and 1040 hp, 17.5 knots.
Crew: 30
Armament: 1x 76 mm gun, 2x MG 13.2 mm, 30 mines.

Polish Monitors (1920-25)

The Polish River Monitors numbered six in September 1939. The first four and older were those of the Warsawa class, including the Horodyszcze, Torun, Pinsk and Warsawa. They had been built in 1920 at Dantziger Werft shipyards to serve on the Vistula and its tributaries, protecting eastern Poland against Russian appetites. They were then the spearhead of the "Pinsk Flotilla". Originally they were armed with two pieces of 105 mm and 5 machine guns in turrets. Fully armored, they had a small superstructure and a lookout mast. However in 1928 they were rearmed by a 100 mm howitzer and two pieces of 75 mm, four AA machine guns. Between 1936 and 1939 they were rebuilt and their silhouette was lowered, the engine changed for two Glennifer of 100 hp. Three 75 mm turret pieces were mounted while four turret machine guns were installed on a central armored casemate. On September 1, 1939, they scuttled without fighting on the Prypec and were captured and renamed by the Russians who in 1941 used them against the German invasion. They were scuttled to avoid capture.

ORP Warsawa
Monitors of the Warsawa class

Displacement: 110t, 130 t FL
Dimensions: 34.5 x 5.1 x 0.7 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Glennifer diesels 4 cylinders and 200 hp, 11 knots.
Armour: Max 11 mm
Crew: 38
Armament: 3 x 75 mm (3in), 4 x 13,2 mm MGs.

The Krakow class monitors were a bit more recent, and these two buildings built at the Zelnewskiego shipyard in 1924-26 were assigned to the Pinsk flotilla. His locally built diesels were Perkun-Kromhout. Originally, their weaponry included a 100 mm turret Howitzer at the rear and two 75 mm central turret pieces with a 360 degree firing arc, and four turreted machine guns. In 1932, the two 75 mm pieces were replaced by 100 mm Howitzers. In 1939, we had added 4 machine guns in double turrets. The Krakow was scuttled on the Prypec near Kuzliczyn on September 21, 1939 and the Wilno sunk near Osobowicze on the 19th. The Krakow was later captured by the Russians, renamed Bobruisk and was part of the Pinsk flotilla. It was bombed and sunk during Operation Barbarossa in 1941.

Caracteristics Krakow:
Displacement: 80t, 110 t FL
Dimensions: 35 x 6 x 0,39 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 diesels PK 120 hp, 7,5 knots.
Armour: 5-8 mm
Crew: 32
Armament: 3 Howitzer 100 mm, 8 x 13,2 mm MGs.

Kaszub class TBs (1914)

ORP Mazur

Of the six torpedo boats owned by Poland in 1920 and German acquisitions, four were of type A56 and dated to 1918. Displacing 381 tons, they were only three in 1939 as Krakowiak was scrapped in 1937. Capable of reaching 28 knots, they were armed with two 88 mm guns and a single 450 mm TT that can be reloaded. They were captured at berth in 1939 but presumably not used by the Kriegsmarine. Two other torpedo-destroyers of type V105 (1914) had also been in service, the Kaszub being badly damaged during a storm on July 20, 1925. Subsequently, the Mazur was completely rebuilt to serve as a gunners training ship, while torpedo tubes were deposed and the 88 mm main gun, for four 76 mm (3 in). Machines were renovated, and she was sunk by the Luftwaffe during the first hours of the German attack, becoming, on September 1st, the first ship sunk during the Second World War.


Specifications (Mazur 1939)
Displacement: 350t, 440 t FL
Dimensions: 62 x 6,2 x 2,60 m
Propulsion: 2 shaft 2 Vulkan AEG turbines, 4500 hp, 25 knots.
Crew: 57
Armament: 4 x 76 mm (3 in).

The Free Polish Navy (1941-45)

ORP Dragon
"During the war the Polish Navy in exile was supplemented with leased British ships, including two cruisers, seven destroyers, three submarines, and a number of smaller fast-attack vessels. The Polish Navy fought alongside the Allied navies in Norway, the North Sea, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and aided in the escort of Atlantic and Arctic convoys, in which ORP Orkan was lost in 1943. Polish naval vessels played a part in the sinking of the German battleship Bismarck, and in the landings in Normandy during D-Day.

ORP Orkan in 1943
ORP Orkan in 1943

During the course of the war, one cruiser, four destroyers, one minelayer, one torpedo boat, two submarines and some smaller vessels (gunboats, mine hunters etc.) were sunk; in total, twenty-six ships were lost, mostly in September 1939. In addition to participating in the sinking of Bismarck, the Polish Navy sank an enemy destroyer and six other surface ships, two submarines and a number of merchant vessels."

But the most important transfers were those of the Dragon cruiser in 1943 (ex-HMS Dragon) and Conrad, ex-Danae in 1944, after the loss of the first. They were also the submersible Jastrzab, ex-S25 American, an ancient unit transferred to the British under the "lend-lease" device, and which was sent to escort convoys of the Arctic. But two more recent ones were attributed to him, of class U, the Dzik and Sokol, who operated successfully in the Mediterranean against the Italian convoys and gained the nickname of "terrible twins". There were also 10 torpedo launchers transferred to the summer (Type MTB White and Type MGB) and for one year, two French submarine fighters captured in Great Britain in July 1940.

D class cruisers

ORP Dragon
ORP Dragon in 1944

The Polish Navy did not have any cruiser in 1939. Her ships were destroyed or took refuge in Great Britain. Afterwards, some ships resumed service under Polish colors but fully integrated into the Royal Navy. As more and more Polish seamen also took refuge in UK, and were available for action at sea, but without a ship. The British choosed to give two cruisers to the Poles, the Conrad and Dragon. They were not in service simultaneously: The first into service was ORP Dragon, ex-HMS Dragon. Both ships were light cruiser of the class "D" of 1918.

They had their main artillery in simple shielded mounts but their armament was supplemented by modern torpedo tubes banks, and an updated AAA. In addition, a radar, a huff-duff antenna, a sonar room, and ASW grenade launchers were installed. Official transfer was done in January 15, 1943. ORP Dragon was sank on July 8, 1944 off the Normandy coast, supporting supply operations of the beachheads, by a human torpedo of the Nebel type. Judged irreparable, she was towed away and finally sunk to form a breakwater in front of one of the artificial ports of the coast.

ORP Conrad

ORP Conrad
On October 4, 1944, the Royal Navy gave the Poles the former HMS Danae of the same class, renamed ORP Conrad, with the same modifications. She served intensively until the end of the war and was sent back to Great Britain on September 26, 1946, to be shortly after broken up.

Displacement: 4990t, 6100t FL
Dimensions: 143.6 x 13.9 x 5 m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Brown-Curtis turbines, 6 Yarrow boilers, 40,000 hp, 29 knots.
Crew: 480
Armament: 5 x 152 mm, 12 x TLT 533 mm (4x3), 16 x 40 mm AA (4x4) Bofors AA.

Polish (ex-British) destroyers

ORP Garland: A "G" class destroyer transferred in may 1840, loaned by the Royal Navy, and keeping her name. She served until the end of the war and was returned to UK i 1946. ORP Ouragan: The former French Ouragan seized in a british port after the fall of France. She was roughly of the same type than the Wicher class, and this helped training the Polish crews. She was transferred on 18/07/1940 and returned to the Royal Navy in April 1941.

ORP Piorun: An "N" class destroyer, former HMS nerissa, transferred on 5.11.1940 to compensate for the loss of Grom. She served well during wartime and was returned in 1946. Already on drydocks for repairs she she took part in the defence of Clydebank against the Luftwaffe in March 1941. In may, she joined the British 4th Destroyer Flotilla (Cossack, Maori, Sikh and Zulu, Captain Philip Vian) to escort the troop convoy WS8B from Glasgow to the Indian Ocean. On 25 May, this force was hastily detached to join for the German battleship Bismarck, unleashed in the Atlantic. Piorun eventually spotted the battleship, shadowing her and leading torpedo attacks the night before she was sunk. She operated in pait with HMS Maori, charged at Bismarck to distract some fire while Maori manoeuvred to fire her torpedoes. Piorun duelled with Bismarck for an hour, without hit although a near miss at 20 yards (18 m) make Piorun brake the duel and retire. Piorun will also participated in Operation Halberd (Malta convoys), Operation Husky (Sicily). She returned to the Home Fleet in 1944, particpated in Operation Deadlight, sinking several captured German Type XXI submarines.

ORP Orkan: An M-class destroyers, wartime repeats of the preceding L class named HMS Myrmidon and built in Scotland in 1942. She was transferred to the free Polish navy in December 1942. ORP Orkan served in the Arctic, to Mursmansk. Early in 1943, she has been succesfully escorting the convoy JW-53 to Russia, plus the return convoy RA-52. She patrolled and was also a convoy escort in the North Atlantic. In July of the same year she transferred the body Władysław Sikorski from Gibraltar to England. However in october 8, she was torpedoed and sank at 07.05 hours by a GNAT homing torpedo fired from U-378. She was escorting the convoy SC 143. One officer and 43 men survived, thanks to the quick and risky intervention of HMS Musketeer.

This type of destroyer was armed with three twin 4.7 in (120 mm) Mk XI dual-purpose guns, a single QF 4 in (102 mm) Mk V anti-aircraft gun a quadruple QF 2-pdr (40 mm) Mk VIII AA guns "pom pom" and two single Oerlikon 20 mm (0.8 in) AA guns plus two quadruple, and two twin 0.5 in (12.7 mm) Vickers Mark III anti-aircraft machineguns. Torpedoes were reduced to a single quadruple 21 in (533 mm) bank but she also carried 42 depth charges, two racks, and two DC throwers for ASW warfare, which reflected the priorities already in 1941 when the Type M plans were first drafted.

Other transfers

-Submarine Jastrzab: Former US-built S25? She has been at first transferred to the RN to evaluate the adoption of these WW1-vintage surplus American types. At the time the crew of Wilk (lost) was available, it was decided in 1941 to transfer the boat to the Poles and renamed her. Jastrzab screened the convoy PQ but was sunk later by error by the Norwegian destroyer St Albans and British Seagull on 2.5.1942.

-Dzik class submarines: The "terrible twins" were ex-U class submarines Urchin and P52 transferred on 11.10.1942. Both served in the Mediterranean. Dzik was used from December 1944 as a training submarine, joined later by ORP Sokol.

-S1 class MTB: Two motor torpedo boats built by public subscription at White, Cowes in March 1940, and the first was ceded as S1 to the Poles in August 1940, returned in February 1944.

-S2 class MTB: Two ASW power boats intended for the RN as MGB44 and 45, transferred in July 1940 and commissioned as S2 Wilczur and S3 Wysel. The first was discarded in 1943 and the second in 1944.

-S4, S5 class MTBs: In total six more MTBs were transferred in 1943 and 1944. They were renamed S4-S10 and returned in 1944 or 1945.

-CH11 sub-chasers: Ex-French sub-chasers which took refuge at the French capitulation, were interned and later ceded to the Poles on 19.7.1940. after some service they were returned in February 1941.

Read More

http://hmscavalier.org.uk/G90/ About the ORP Orkan

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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