Alberto di Giussano class (1930)

4 ships (1930) Giussano, Barbiano, Colleoni, Bande Nere.

The famous "Condotierri" cruiser class was an invention from postwar authors, trying to group a serie of light cruisers named after ancient Italian warlords but built for various purposes. The first of these were also the first post-WWI Italian cruisers to see service. Five classes followed one another, but they were quite different. The first two series were very lightly built destroyer hunters in the 5,000 tons range, while the second series (three classes) were ranging from 8,000 to 10,000 tons (D'Aosta group and following), trying to marry speed and protection at best.

However the early "tin-clad cruisers" of the first two series, Giussano and Cadorna, did not left a good impression on their adversaries, mostly due to their own limitations and task, destroying French large destroyers and not engaging their equivalents. They were way to small and fragile to fight other cruisers and proved heavy preys even for enemy destroyers.

Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice
Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice

Early developments

Italian experience with cruisers ceased with the Quarto, first Italian turbine cruiser in 1911 and the Nino Bixio class, Two "Esploratori" (scouts) from Castellamare du Stabia. Nino Bixio and Marsala were designed by the same engineer, Giuseppe Rota, which created the Quarto. Great speed should be reached but was never approached on trials. Only Marsala closely reached the contract speed of 27.5 knots, heating boilers to be rated at 22,500 hp. They entered service in May and August 1914, and were quite active during the Great War. However they accumulated problems of engine reliability and performed poorly compared to the Admiral Spaun class of the same generation. They were stricken in 1927-1929. Technically the last Italian cruisers has been the two Campania class (1914) but they were merely glorified gunboats for colonial service.

In 1926 the French unveiled their first destroyer leader class, called "le Fantasque". They were quite superior to any Italian destroyer of the time and made even a threat for larger ships. The admiralty decided to built "budget" small cruisers, between destroyers and proper cruisers to catch an sink these destroyers.

Preliminary work was given to general Giuseppe Vian. The latter started from there to create the new cruisers needed by the Regia Marina; Vian worked under his senior engineer, the famous Giuseppe Rota. The latter was the first director of La Spezia Naval base and of INSEAN (Naval Institute), considered the father of modern Italian naval architecture. He was also in 1890 director of the Castellammare di Stabia shipyard, General Inspector of the Corps of Naval Engineers, and dedicating most of his career naval architecture. He created models to test hydrodynamic shapes and test water in motion.

He collaborated with Edoardo Masdea on the battleship Dante Alighieri and designed the Nino Bixio. he also designed a conversion in aircraft carrier for the cancelled Francesco Caracciolo, and also designed an hybrid carrier/cruiser which was presented but not approved by the Ministry of the Navy. He would also design the large Navigatori class destroyer and worked in close collaboration with General Giuseppe Vian on the Alberto di Giussano light class cruiser class, advocated after his long service for the creation of the National Institute for Studies and Experiences in Naval Architecture (INSEAN) in 1927.

Design of the Giussano class

Outside the Nino Bixio and Quarto of WW1, design influences could have been drawn from the war reparation cruisers obtained by Italy in 1920: The Taranto (1911, ex-German Strassburg), Bari (1914, ex-German Pillau), Brindisi (ex-Austrian Helgoland), or Ancona (ex-German Graudenz).

The Giussano class were the first ships of the "Condottieri" serie. They were named indeed after famous Italian Condotierre, historical figures such as Alberico da Barbiano (1349-1409, leading the Compagnia San Giorgio), Alberto di Giussano (Lombard legendary Guelph warrior during the wars of the Lombard League against Frederick Barbarossa in the 12th century), Bartolomeo Colleoni (captain-general of the Republic of Venice of the XVth century) and Giovanni delle Bande Nere (Lodovico de' Medici).


These cruisers were originally designed to engage the heavy French destroyers of the Aigle, Jaguar and Lion classes. In order to catch them, they sacrificed everything to speed. Although they were designed to reach 39 knots on trials, RMS Barbiano reached 42 knots by forced heating and empty, earning the world record for a cruiser. Only the later French Le Fantasque class large destroyers could reach this speed. To achieve this goal, the cursor was down to almost zero for protection, minimalistic at best. Also they were relatively top-heavy because of their superstructure and high, narrow hull, rolling badly as a result. The cruisers of the first group designed by General Giuseppe Vian, started in 1928 and in service in 1931 had powerplants equivalent to those of the much heavier Zara-class cruisers, but without any protection.


To overwhelm French destroyers, these cruisers were armed with a comfortable margin: Height 8-in guns or 152/53 mm Ansaldo 1926 artillery pieces in four twin mounts. All four turrets were mmounted in superfiring pairs force and aft. These were true twin mounts, in which both barrels were elevated in concert. There was no independent elevation. The guns made by Ansaldo weighted 7.22 t, versus those of OTO, 7.57 t. Barrel were 6.682 m long, with a shell weight of 50 kg (AP model 1926), or 47.5 kg (Mod. 1929 AP) and 44.3 kg (HE), with a muzzle velocity of 1000 m/s (For the AP Mod 1926), 850 m/s (AP Mod. 1929) and 950m/s (HE). Maximum range was 24.6 km (For the HE) down to 22.6 Km for the 1929 AP shells. Elevation was -5°/+ 45° (Mod. 1926) and -10°/+45° (Mod. 1929).

twin mount OTO 100 mm DP

Secondary armament comprised six 100/47 mm OTO 1928 in three 3 twin mounts, two placed either side of the forward funnel and one centerline on the aft quarterdeck, in front of the rear funnel. These models were derived from the WW1 Škoda 10 cm K10 da 100 mm which armed the Novara type cruisers obtained as war reparations. The mount and barrel weighted 2,177 ton, barrel lenght was 4 985-4 940 mm, with 26 caliber. The type of shell-and-cartridge integrated ammunition weighting 26.02 kg, with a firing rate of 8 to 10 rounds a minute at a velocity of 840-880 m/s and maximum range of 12 600-15 400 m.

Breda twin 37 mm/54 model 1938 AA

The AA armament comprised four twin mounts of the Breda 37/54 mm. They were placed either side of the boat deck, between the rear funnel and mainmast, and in nacelles in the bridge superstructure. It seems they were not protected by a shield as delivered a shown in the blueprints. These twin mounts weighted 277 kg with a Barrel length of 1998 mm, shell weight of 830g, a Gas operated-drive for 140 rpm at 800m/s and 3,500 m useful range, top range of 6,000 m. They were fed by 6 vertically placed cartridges racks, while the mountings had an elevation from -5° to + 85° and 360° angle. They were Water cooled on Mod. 1932 buu air cooled on the newt Mod. 1938 and 1939.

Breda 13.2 mm
Breda Model 31 13.2 mm HMG

This was completed by four twin 13.2/75.7 mm Breda 1931 heavy machine guns, placed on the bridge forward main deck, and rear bridge superstructure. In 1938-39 the 37/54 guns were replaced with new 20 mm/65 guns and two ASW planes were carried to be deployed both for protection and reconnaissance. These were IMAM Ro.43, sturdy but slow biplanes launched from a forward deck catapult.

IMAM Ro.43 on the front catapult of Zara. The same system was used on the Guissano class cruisers.


Since speed and armament were favored over protection, the latter was to be sufficient to catch French destroyers and flee superior adversaries, as an active protection. The propulsion group comprised two propellers, on shafts connected to Belluzo geared Turbines fed by six Yarrow boilers, rated for a total of 95,000 hp. As a result top speed was 37 knots (69 kph) as designed and up to 42 knots (78 km/h) in speed trials, maintained for a short while however. This was good to create a record and sensation on the world stage, a propaganda coup for the regime, but in 1940-41 these engines were already tired and no longer able to provide the necessary speed. It was unsufficient anyway to protecte the ships against torpedoes and mines. Autonomy was 3,800 miles at 18 knots (7,000 km at 33 km/h).

HD Illustration of the Guissano class
HD Illustration of the Guissano class


These ships as seen above had a ridiculous level of protection, between 20 and 40 mm, with many areas totally uncovered. Even the 102 and 120 mm British destroyers had all chances of get through at all shooting distances. This scarce armor was heavier around the conning tower to protect the backup controls, but less impressive above and around the engines. Underwater protection was also lacking, especially compared to the units launched for the Regia Marina in the following years. For all these reasons this first vessels serie were called -even by their crews- "paper cruisers" or even "tissue paper cruisers". The armament was good for the time but clearly inadequate on the anti-aircraft side (active protection), given the rapid development of aviation in the second half of the 1930-40s.

Military planners of the Regia Marina at the time these ships were designed, mainly compared to the French navy (of which speed was a fundamental factor), was based on the assumption, theoretically correct but in practice surpassed by facts, that high speed could be a substitute of protection against torpedoes. Like battlecruisers, this allowed these cruisers to attack in conditions of superiority and flee in inferiority. One concrete example were the Austro-Hungarian cruisers of the Admiral Spaun class, managing to escape clashes, raiding the coast and wrecking the otranto barrage before the Italian fleet or the allies could arrive. The threat posed by mines was also underestimated by the naval staff, perhaps given the more open theater of operations.


Terrible compromises

As a result of these choices, these "tin-clad cruisers" (also made by France a the time) were all sunk with relative ease during the war. As a result of their inexistent protection against shell fire and lack of any ASW measure, all the units of the Di Giussano type were sunk in action: The Colleoni in 1940 during the Battle of Cape Spada, the Alberto of Giussano and the Alberico da Barbiano in 1941 during the Battle of Cape Bon and the Giovanni delle Bande Nere in 1942 off the coast of Stromboli.

Compared to the rest of the Condotierri group, There was a progressive increase in armor, initially very low, with a belt thickness that did not even reach the ships's speed in knots (25 mm versus 42 knots). This changed over time, to reach 130 mm in the fifth group of the Duca degli Abruzzi class. As a result the Bartolomeo Colleoni stood little chances against HMS Sidney while the Garibaldi survived two torpedoes from the British submarine HMS Upholder.



The two following Cadorna class ships kept the features with only minor changes and rather than light cruisers were merely large explorers. Real light cruisers were started from the Montecuccoli class, heavily modified and much heavier with significantly better protected and more reliable engines in order to maintain the required speed for long. The two units of the Duca d'Aosta class continued the trend with greater armor thickness and better engines power. This trend to sacrifice some speed to reach a better protection, combined with the extra guns made them the best of the whole Condotierri group.

Details of the Bridge

A missed AA conversion project

Profiles from Franco and Valerio Gay "The Cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni" (Conway Maritime Press) showing drafts by the Comitato Progetti Navi (in-house navy design team) and O.T.O. yards. The First design of February 1938 (top) was the most radical. They were 16 single 90mm/48, and the gun was still under development at the time. This pretty simple conversion allowed the fire control equipment to be installed on the slightly modified bridge. Deck would have been reinforced with 30mm of nickel-chrome steel plates, helped by the removal of the heavier 152mm turrets.

In 1938 already it was realized, these Di Giussano and the 2 Cadorna were too weak to face any British units it was thought to turn these early cruisers into anti-aircraft dedicated cruisers, like the Royal Navy was making of old C-class light cruisers. Thes escort conversion ensured the protection of the fleet and of lines of maritime communications in coastal waters. The idea was copied by the US Navy (with the Atlanta) and recalled on a dedicated platform later with the Dido class in UK.

These anti-aircraft cruisers had a considerable advantage in terms of stability compared to escorting destroyers, as they were more stable platform due to their size, had better or more fire control systems. For cost issues, the admiralty settled on the conversion of the four Di Giussano cruisers only. However budget and time only allowed to convert the first two of this sub-class. The admiralty still needed the remainder to fill their cruiser role, waiting for the Costanzo Ciano 12,000-ton sub-class to enter service and replace them. However both Costanzo Ciano and Luigi Rizzo, scheduled in 1938 for 1941-1942 were canceled in June 1940.

This transformation would have been very extensive bu rational with a reduction in the engines, two less boilers, but greater cost-effectiveness, range, to the cost of top speed. The new layout comprised a very powerful AA armament, sixteeen 90 mm guns in single mounts plus and twenty 20 mm Breda heavy machine guns in 10 twin mounts. The second conversion plan was less radical ans called for four 135 mm guns remained, as well as twelve 90 mm guns, eight 37 mm twin mounts, and sixteen Breda 20 mm.

This second variant would have guaranteed some protection against light enemy ships. Indeed the excellent 135 mm was less powerful and had a lower range than the 152 mm (6 in) but was remarkably more precise and can reload faster. They would have been very suitable for escort tasks, in the battle fleet and above for convoys with Africa and the Balkans. The problem of a weak armor persisted however, with the same underwater protection only compensated by the addition of counter-keels, not included in the final plan. It was decided, however, to abandon the project to concentrate the available resources and the completion of the battleships. This old obsession of the admiralty also conducted to a costly conversion of the surviving dreadnoughts of the Doria and Caesare classes.

The Guissano class in action:

In short in service, the Giussano class proved uncomfortable, with poorly designed internal arrangements and lack of autonomy and engine reliability as well. In fact none survived the war, Bande Nere being sunk by the submarine HMS Urge, the Colleoni in July 1940 in a duel with the cruiser Sydney, the Barbiano and Giussano by the destroyers HMS Legion, Maori, Sikh and Dutch destroyer Isaac Swers during the battle of the cape Bon in December 13, 1941.

Alberto Di Guissano

This cruiser, launched on April 27, 1930 was completed in June the next year and commissioned into the Regia Marina. In the 1930s she participated in the normal peacetime routine of the fleet as part of the 2nd Squadron. She patrolled also during the Spanish civil war. On 10 June 1940, together with the 1st Squadron, she was part of the IV Cruiser Division. She was involved in the battle of Punta Stilo in July 1940, during which she launched an IMAM Ro.43 seaplane for reconnaissance. She carried out a sortie to lay mines off the coast of Pantelleria in August 1940 and acted as a cover for some coastal operations and protecting supply convoys to and from North Africa until the end of the year.

On December 9, 1941, under captain Giovanni Marabotto, she left Palermo with her sister Alberico da Barbiano, carrying urgent fuel supplies to planes based in Tripoli. However admiral Toscano, commander of the IV Division believed that surprise vanished after the RAF spotted them and ordered to turn back. On December 12th, the need was still desperate and the two cruisers were ordered to leave again and sail to Tripoli, using their great speed to try to slip in by night. However, they were intercepted off Cape Bon on December 13th before dawn by four enemy destroyers: HMS Sikh, Legion and Maori, two of the powerful Cossack class, and the Dutch HrMs Isaac Sweers, all of the 4th Destroyer Flotilla.

Di Giussano fired three salvos but was struck by at least two torpedoes (on a volley of six from HMS Maori, as well as artillery fire. After some pipes burst, burning drivers in the machinery and stopping the left propeller, the ship started to slow down. Fire developed in a less fast and violent way than on the Da Barbiano, but she was immobilized, and eventually she has to be abandoned, left sinking after breaking in two, at 4.20 am.
283 men of the 720 in total died in the sinking. A sailor left on board testified hit the ship caught fire immediately after being hit, fuel spilling and extending the fire rapidly to the surrounding sea, therefore many sailors died in the flames after jumping while while others drawn.

Alberico Da Barbiano

Alberico da Barbiano in 1940

The Da Barbiano entered service in the early 1930s, carrying out missions in the western Mediterranean during the Spanish civil war. On 10 June 1940, she joined forced with the 1st Squadron, as part of the IV Cruiser Division. She took part as her sister ships in the battle of Punta Stilo, catapulting an IMAM Ro.43 seaplane to try to spot the British fleet. She later covered the supply convoys to North Africa along 7 missions covering 13,241 miles.

On 12 December 1941 she left Palermo in Sicily with Alberto di Giussano to carry urgent fuel supplies to Tripoli. The first attempt previously has been recalled by the admiral, fearing an ambush as their group was spotted by aviation. Like her sister ship, she was caught on December 13th during this new trip off Cape Bon, by the British 4th Destroyer Flotilla, four enemy destroyers (Sikh, Legion, Maori, Isaac Sweers) and the attack was so sudden and brutal she could only scramble in due time the heavy machine gun posts to react. The Alberico Da Barbiano received three torpedoes from HMS Sikh, Legion and Maori, plus man hits of HE shells.

She caught fire and starting sinking, set adrift and shaken by many explosions. This mayhem lasted for 10 minutes. Later she turned upside down at 3.35 am and dive to the bottom, carrying with her most of her crew a mere ten minutes after the attack started. 534 survived out of 784 men, comprising the admiral Antonino Toscano, commander of the IV Division, but also division captain Giorgio Rodocanacchi. Both could scape but decided to stay with their ship sinking, and were posthumously decorated with the Gold Medal for Military Valor as well as machine-gun officer Lieutenant Franco Storelli. Her Wreck was found by the 2007 "Altair" expedition sponsored by Cressi, lying at a depth between 60 and 70 meters.

Bartolomeo Colleoni

Colleoni AWM

Bartolomeo Colleoni entered service in the early 1930s, carrying patrols in the western Mediterranean during the Spanish civil war. In November 1938 she was sent to relvieve the Raimondo Montecuccoli in the Far East station, arriving off Shanghai on December 23, 1938. She remained there until the war broke out between the UK and Germany and on 1 October 1939, was relieved herself by the corvette Lepanto, and returned to Italy on 28 October. The "Commodore" by Arturo Catalano Gonzaga di Cirella, published a book about the event in 1998.

The Bartolomeo Colleoni, received IMAM Ro.43 seaplanes, launched from a prow's catapult. She was part of the 2nd Cruiser Division, 2nd Squadron, together with Bande Nere. On June 10, 1940 she made a a sortie to lay mines in the Sicily Channel, and on July 6 escorted a large convoy of supplies from Naples to Benghazi. These were reinforcement troops from Esperia and Calitea carried onboard the freighter Marco Foscarini, Vettor Pisani and Francesco Barbaro. On 9 July she took part in the battle of Punta Stilo, launching her planes to try to spot the British fleet.

On 18 July she sailed from Tripoli with delle Bande Nere as flagship of Admiral Ferdinando Casardi) bound to the island of Leros in the Aegean Sea. Indeed British activity there was causing concern and both cruisers were made ready to launch raids against British ships. At dawn on July 19 however, as they had been spotted by the RAF th day before, they were intercepted by the cruiser HMAS Sydney and five destroyers off Cape Spada in Crete.
The battle of Cape Spada saw both cruisers heavily engaged, Colleoni had her engine room wrecked by fire and the ship immobilized, an easy target for torpedoes. Admiral Casardi thought he faced two cruisers and four destroyers and ordered the surviving Bande Nere to flee, chased by HMAS Sydney, while himself stayed on the Colleoni, immobilized and in flames (the blow's ammunition depot exploded and cut it in two). She was indeed soon targeted with a full torpedo volley from British destroyers HMS Ilex and Havock.

As a result of multiple simultaneously hits, the ship dramatically exploded and sank rapidly at 8.29, bringing with her 121 sailors. 525 were however recovered and taken prisoner by the British. Commander Umberto Novaro has been seriously injured but was saved by her crew and dragged out of the bridge where he clang to the wheel to sink with her ship. He would die however four days later in Alexandria as a POW. The Royal Navy gave him full military honors in the presence of the surviving crew and captain Eugenio Martini, former second in command of the cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni.

Bart Colleoni

Giovanni Delle Bande Nere

Delle Bande Nere camo 1942

Giovanni Delle Bande Nere started her career in April 1939, takng part in the occupation of Albania, covering coastal operations and firing in coastal positions. She was part of a special unit under command of the admiral Arturo Riccardi. Heavy cruisers of the Zara class together with 13 destroyers and 14 torpedo boats plus several steamers carrying a total of 11,300 men and 130 tanks plus equipments and supplies were to be landed. The action was largely unopposed, contraried by a few salvos fired in Durres and Santi Quaranta. They met overall very little resistance. Main prts were captured and soon the capital fell, with King Zog forced into exile.

Later, Giovanni delle Bande Nere was equipped with IMAM Ro.43 seaplanes, one launched from a a forward deck catapult and the other in standby like her sister-ships. She teamed with the Colleoni, making the 2nd Division and fought at the battle of Punta Stilo on 9 July 1940 a few days after escorting a large convoy to Libya. On 19 July, she was sent to the Aegean, still with the Colleoni, to raid enemy traffic. But soon the pair met the Australian cruiser HMAS Sydney and five British destroyers. The battle of Cap Spada proved fatal to the Colleoni, badly hit and immobilized in flames and later "executed" by torpedoes from the destroyers. Meanwhile admiral Ferdinando Casardi, commander of the II Division had raised his mark on the Bande Nere and was injured by a hit, ordering the ship to flee, chased down by the HMAS Australia thanks to her speed. However in the process, she was hit a second time and speed soon fell to 29 knots while sailors frantically tried to repair the damage and allow her to reach 32 knots with temporary repairs again. Sydney was also hit in return by 6-in shells of the Bande Nere, her forward funnel badly damaged. She eventually preferred give up. All her way out, Bande Nere risked to be catch and attacked by the RAF nearby. She would deplore 8 dead and 16 wounded during this battle.

Later Bander Nere would actively participate in convoy duties for Libya. 5-7 February 1941 she escorted Conte Rosso, Esperia, Marco Polo and Calitea to Tripoli, carrying the entire "Ariete" armored division. On May 24, 1941 she teamed with the cruiser Armando Diaz and the destroyers Ascari and Corazziere, making indirect escort cover for numerous convoys, ready to fell on any threat. On February 25, Diaz was torpedoed by a submarine and sank almost with all hands. On 10 December 1941 Band Nere was requisitioned for supplying aviation petrol and materials to Tripoli, with two other light cruisers of the IV Division, Alberico da Barbiano and Alberto di Giussano. She was however at the second attempt stuck in Palermo because of an engine problem. She renounced the mission which saw the destrouction of her two sister ships of the remaining IV Division in the night of 12-13 December. On 21 February 1942 however, she took part in Operation K.7, protecting two convoys to Libya, an operation which ended with a full success.

On March 21 1942 she took part in a composite force sent against an English convoy heading for Malta. This was the second battle of the Sirte in which the Bande Nere duelled with the British cruiser HMS Cleopatra and was soon hit by a 6-in shell (152 mm), causing 15 deaths and substantial damage but she carried on the fight.

Author's Illustration of the Bande Nere, just before being sunk by a single torpedo in April 1942. Notice: The reference for this 20 years old illustration is no longer viable. Caouflage not accurate.

On the morning of 1 April 1942, Bande Nere left Messina, heading for La Spezia, escorted by the destroyers Aviere and Torpedo boat Libra. At 9 am, some 11 miles from Stromboli, this small fleet was ambushed by the British submarine HMS Urge. One of her torpedo hit the Giovanni delle Bande Nere in the middle, breaking it in two. She quickly sank, dragging with her from 381 to 287 men according to various sources. Her wreck was found by the Italian naval minesweeper Vieste on 9 March 2019, while off Stromboli she made a routine technical verification and surveillance of the seabed.

Colleoni in action with HMAS Sydney July 1940
Colleoni after her action with HMAS Sydney July 1940, as shown here, her bow was broken in two.

Technical specifications of the Giussano class

Displacement: 5,110 t. standard, 6,840 t. Full Load
Dimensions: 169.30 m long, 15.30 m wide, 5.30 m draft
Machinery: 2 propellers, 2 Belluzzo turbines, 8 Yarrow boilers, 95,000 hp.
Maximum speed: 36.5 knots
Protection: Belt 42, Deck 20, Turrets 23, Blockhouse 40-25 mm
Armament: 8 x 152 guns (4x2), 6 x 100 guns (3x2), 8x37 AA, 8x13.2 AA , 4x533 mm TTs (2x2)
Crew: 520

Read More/Src:

Conway's all the world fighting ships 1922-47
Genesis of Italian light cruisers (Italian web archive)
On - G Delle Bande Nere discovered
Alberico da Barbiano - Incrociatore leggero, su
otivazione Motivazione della Medaglia d'Oro all'ammiraglio Toscano, al comandante Rodocanacchi.
A pag. 82 del testo citato si accenna alla fragilità strutturale della nave.
Gordon Smith, Royal Navy casualties, killed and died, March 1942
Daniele Ranocchia, Le Operazioni Navali nel Mediterraneo
Giovanni delle Bande Nere - Incrociatore leggero,
Pietro Cristini, Vita operativa degli incrociatori

The Modeller's Corner:
EVA scale kits FB page

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Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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