Doria class battleships (1916)

Battleships Caio Duilio, Andrea Doria

Cavour's sister class: Doria

The Andrea Doria class (or Caio Duilio class for Italians sources) was the last dreadnought battleship class of the Regia Marina to see service in WW1, started in 1912 and completed 1916. The Andrea Doria and Caio Duilio were an incremental improvement over the Conte di Cavour class, with a main battery of thirteen 12-in guns (305 mm) guns, as most countries that went into that race late, whereas the British already swapped on the 14-in caliber.

Both battleships were stationed in southern Italy to ensure the Austro-Hungarian Navy stayed trapped in the Adriatic, and they saw no action but drills, as local deterrent. After the war, they were involved in the Corfu incident in 1923, joined the reserve in 1933, and completely rebuilt from 1937 until 1940, seen them thrown in WW2. Stationed in Taranto they were caught by the famous British carrier strike in November, which placed RN Caio Duilio out of action until May 1941. Escorting convoys to North Africa saw ultimately Andrea Doria damaged, until fuel shortages brought their activity from 1942 and until the surrender to a standstill. They ended interned in Malta, and retired, discarded and BU in the 1950s. Their unimpressive active service lasted for 20 years.

Design of the Doria class

Both Andrea Doria-class battleships were designed by naval architect and Vice Admiral Generale del Genio navale Giuseppe Valsecchi. They were planned and ordered in response to the French Bretagne-class. The latter were better armed, with ten 340mm guns, but the Italians trie to compensate by having the admidship triple turret giving them thirteen guns (three more).

The design proceeded from the generally successful Conte di Cavour-class and only encurred some minor changes. The superstructure was reduced, which was obtained by shortening the forecastle deck and lowering the amidships gun turret for better stability and arc of fire. This also concerned a much more powerful, standard secondary armament, now sixteen 6-in guns (152mm) rather than the light 4.7 in (120 mm) guns of the Cavour.

Their hull was about the same, 168.9 meters (554 ft 2 in) long at the waterline, 176 meters overall, like the previous class for the same beam of 28 meters (91 ft 10 in) and slightly greater draft of 9.4 meters (30 ft 10 in) versus 9.3 in. Displacement was a tad lighter at 22,956 long tons (23,324 t) normal up to 24,729 long tons (25,126 t) deeply loaded versus 25,086 long tons (25,489 t) deeply loaded for the Cavour, mostly the result of the forecastle shortened. ASW protection and compartimentation was about the same, with a complete double bottom and a subdivision into 23 longitudinal and transverse bulkheads. They had the same pair of rudders on the centerline and the crew was 31 officers and 969 sailors.



Comparison between the two classes, with Cavour (top).

The most striking difference outside the forecastle, was the placement of the tripod mast, behind the funnel, and the funnels themselves, raised a few meters to lower smoke interference.

Propulsion

Both battleships had a very different powerplant than the the Cavour: Three Parsons steam turbine arranged in three engine rooms, instead of four mated on four shafts. The center engine room housed a single turbine that drove the two inner propeller shafts. Both side engines rooms comprised a turbine set, driving each an outer shaft. Steam was provided by 20 water-tube Yarrow boilers (as in the previous class), with the same mixed arrangement: 8 burned oil and the remainder 12 burned coal, but sprayed with oil. Their design speed was 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph) based on a nominal output as designed of 32,000 shaft horsepower (24,000 kW) (compared to 30,700–32,800 shp (22,900–24,500 kW) on the Cavour). But both battleships failed in trials to reach these figures. They achieved 21-21.3 knots (38.9 to 39.4 km/h; 24.2 to 24.5 mph) only on trials. Both carried in peacetime a total of 1,488 long tons (1,512 t) of coal, completed by 886 long tons (900 t) of fuel oil. On paper, their range was 4,800 nautical miles (8,900 km; 5,500 mi) at the cruising speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph), the same as the Cavour.

Battleship scheme in 1913
Battleship scheme in 1913 (modified)

Armament

As built, both battleship had the very same main guns and arrangement as the Cavour: Thirteen 46-caliber 12-inches or 305 mm guns provided by Armstrong Whitworth, Vickers. They were placed in five gun turrets, all centerline, two twin turrets superfiring forward and aft, and three triple at deck level as they were heavier, including one amidship which took space and obliged to design reduced superstructure to free the arc of fire. They were designated 'A', 'B', 'Q', 'X', and 'Y' and had an elevation of −5 to +20 degrees. They were provided each with 88 rounds, 452 kg (996 lb) AP types. For guns' performances naval historian Giorgio Giorgerini affirmed the rate was one round per minute at a muzzle velocity of 840 m/s (2,800 ft/s). Their maximal range was 24,000 meters (26,000 yards).

The secondary armament comprised sixteen 45-cal. 6-inches guns (152 mm) designed by Armstrong Whitworth, all in side casemates. As they were low, they had the same problems as USN battleships secondary battery at the time: They were wet in heavy weather. The rear guns were so obscured by water spray, gunners had to wait in between water splashes to fire; Depression was −5 degrees and maximal elevation +20 degrees. Rate of fire was six rpm, firing a 47 kg (104 lb) HE shell at a muzzle velocity of 830 mps (2,700 ft/s) to 16,000 meters (17,000 yd). 3,440 rounds were carried in all. The light, tertiary artillery intended to deal with torpedo boats comprised nineteen Vickers 76 mm/50 (3.0 in) guns, in 39 different locations. Notably the turret roofs, and upper decks. Elevation was about the same as the secondary guns but with 10 rpm. They fired a 6 kgs (13 lb) AP shell at 815 mps (2,670 ft/s), up to 9,100 meters (10,000 yd). As customary for the time, the Doria were provided with three underwater torpedo tubes, 45 cm (17.7 in) on the broadside, and one in the stern.

Brasseys diagram
Brassey's diagram of the class as published in 1923.

Protection

It was again, close to the Cavour class, with only slighlyt different arrangement due to the shorter forecastle. They had a complete waterline armor belt, 250 mm (9.8 in) thick, tapered down to 130 mm (5.1 in) up to the stern, and down to 80 mm (3.1 in) up to the bow, after the barbettes positions. Above it was a strake of 220 mm (8.7 in) thick, up to the lower edge of the main deck to create a sloped box. Over it was another, 130 mm thick stray protecting the casemates. Two armored decks constituted the vertical protection, a 24 mm (0.94 in) main deck in two layers, with 40 mm (1.6 in) slopes down to the main belt and an upper deck 29 mm (1.1 in) in two layers. Transverse bulkheads closing the "box" by connecting the belt and decks were about 90 mm. The turrets faces were protected by 280 mm (11.0 in) of sloped amor, with 240 mm (9.4 in) sides, 85 mm (3.3 in) back plate and roof. They seated on 230 mm (9.1 in) thick barbettes above the deck, down to 180 mm (7.1 in) below, and 130 mm below the upper armored deck. The walls of the forward conning tower were 320 mm (12.6 in) thick, and aft 160 mm (6.3 in). This was better forward than on the Cavour, 280 and 180 mm (11.0–7.1 in) respectively. It should be noted that if the turrets seems lightly protected, the slopes accounted for an artificial thickness in fact greater, 280 mm being equivalent to 310 mm in direct fire.


Author's illustration of the Doria class as built.

Doria specifications 1916

Dimensions176 x 28 x 9.3m
Displacement23,000 tonnes, 25,000 tonnes FL
Crew31+969
Propulsion4 screws, 3 GS turbines, 20 Yarrow boilers, 30,000 hp
Speed21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph)
Range 4,800 nmi (8,900 km)
Armament13x 305mm (2x2, 3x3), 16 x152mm, 19 x76mm, 3x 17.7 in TTs sub.
ArmorDecks 98 mm, barbettes 130mm, turrets 280mm, belt 250mm, CT 320mm fwd.

The Doria class during WW1

Both battleships were completed as Italy already was at war, with the triple Entente (France, UK, Russia) but they saw little to now action during that time: Italy's main opponent was the Austro-Hungarian Navy, which stayed in Pola to avoid a decisive battle that would probably ended badly, and her battlefleet stayed inactive too, for the duration of the war. Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, naval chief of staff feared indeed Austro-Hungarian submarines and minelayers, at ease wit the Adriatic shallow seas, and this threat was too much to risk his precious capital ships. He preferred to create a blockading deterrent force at the southern end of the Adriatic. Smaller ships, TBs, gunboats and MAS torpedo boats instead used to raid the Austro-Hungarian coast, posing a threat to their ships in turn. Revel's battleships spent their time idle with a few sorties for training, at close range and with a safety net of patrolling TBs and destroyers, or trained in port. From the time Andrea Doria and Caio Duilio entered service, on 13 March 1916 and 10 May 1915 respectively, until November 1918, sailors lived a dull service while Officers could at least enjoyed the nearby city pleasures and mondainities.


Andrea Doria in 1927

The interwar

Andrea Doria and Caio Duilio both cruised in the eastern Mediterranean after 1918, seeing first hand, and intervening in postwar disputes. Caio Duilio was sent to quell a Greek-Turkish dispute over the control of İzmir in April 1919, while Andrea Doria suppressed Gabriele D'Annunzio's seizure of Fiume, in November 1920. She also replaced her sister ship in the Black Sea after the İzmir case, relieved later by Giulio Cesare. Andrea Doria and Caio Duilio also participated in the Corfu incident in 1923. By January 1925, RN Andrea Doria started a goodwill tour, passing Gibraltar, and stopping at Lisbon in Portugal, to represent Italy for the 400th anniversary and celebration of Vasco da Gama. Outside a routine of peacetime service and cruisesto other ports in the 1920s, they were eventually placed in reserve in 1933, amidst crushing economocal difficulties resulting of the 1929 financial crisis.

-1918: They received two 76 mm/50 on AA mounts, their first anti-aircraft armament. One was placed forwards, at the bow and the other on top of 'X' turret.
-1925: Some of the 76 mm/50 Vickers guns was down to 13, those of turret tops, whereas six new 76 mm/40 guns were installed abreast the aft funnel as well as 2-pounder AA guns.
-1926: Upgraded rangefinders (reinforced forward tripod and larger main rangefinder) and fixed aircraft catapult, port side with a Macchi M.18.
Both battleships after 1933 were thought to be modernized, as were the Cavour class. This was scheduled eventually after the first ones, in 1939. They went into drydock and this reconstruction lasted until October and April 1940 respectively, so they emerged, again, in wartime.

Late interwar reconstruction

Before even talks of modernization, it was recoignized the Littorio-class battleships would not be ready in time to replace the Cavour and Doria class, and as a stop-gap measure to answer the newly built French Dunkerque-class battleships announced in 1931, in 1933 it was decided to modernize (and later rebuilt completely) the two Cavour, and the two Dorias followed three years after, in 1937. The changes were considerable and to simply this, let's make a list:

Hull and superstructure:
-Brand new bow section after the old one was was dismantled. Longer by 10.91 meters (35 ft 10 in), a more radical approach than on the Cavour-class where a new bow was grafted over the old one. -Inncreased beam at 28.03 meters (92 ft 0 in) with Pugliese ASW longitudinal protection
-Increased draft at 10.3 meters (33 ft 10 in) DP.
-Increased displacement to 28,882 long tons/29,391 long tons respectively.
-Crew increased to 70 officers, 1,450 enlisted men.
-Brand new upper hull, with the forecastle extending to the aft barbettes.
-Completely new silhouette, dictated by the new narrow truncated funnels, new tower bridge, new deck superstructure, and rear tripod mast and aft CT.

Powerplant:
-Only two propeller shafts
-New Belluzzo geared steam turbines for 75,000 shp (56,000 kW).
-Height superheated Yarrow boilers.
-Top speed 26.9–27 knots (49.8–50.0 km/h; 31.0–31.1 mph) on trials, 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph) as designed.
-2,530 long tons (2,570 t) of fuel oil
-4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) at 18 knots

Armament:
-Center turret, torpedo tubes, casemate guns, AA guns removed.
-4x3 135 mm (5.3 in) turreted guns
-Ten 90 mm (3.5 in) dual purpose single AA turrets.
-15(6x2 +3 single) Breda 37mm/45 (1.5 in) AA guns
-16 (8x2) Breda 20-millimeter (0.8 in) Modello 35 AA guns.
-Rebored main guns to 320 mm (12.6 in)
-New turrets with electric power.
-New mounts for fixed loading angle +12 degrees max elevation +27-30°
-New 320-millimeter AP shells 525 kgs (1,157 lb) 830 m/s (2,700 ft/s) muzzle velocity
-Maximum range 28,600 meters (31,300 yd)

By early 1942 the aft 20 mm were replaced by twin 37 mm mounts instead and relocated to Turret 'B' roof. Stabilized 90 mm guns mounts motors removed. The forward superstructure and integrated CT protected by 260 mm, fire-control director and its three large rangefinders reminded of the system developed for the Littorio.

Protection:
-135 mm (5.3 in) armoured deck.
-120 mm (4.7 in) thick faces secondary turrets?
-Pugliese system for ASW protection, large cylinder with fuel oil/water around to absorb torpedo blasts.
The Final tonnage diverged between the two classes, from 29,391 tonnes (Duilio) down to 28,882 tonnes (Doria)

Doria specifications 1940

Dimensions186.9 x 29.2 x 8.6m
Displacement29,100 tonnes /29,400 tonnes FL
Crew1300?
Propulsion2 screws, 2 reduction turbines, 8 Yarrow boilers, 90 000 hp
Speed27 knots (40 km/h; mph)
Range 6,700 nmi ()
Armament10x 355mm (2x2, 2x3), 12 x135mm (4x3), 10 x90mm AA, 12x 37mm, 15x 20mm Breda AA.
ArmorDecks 135-166 mm, barbettes 130-280mm, belt 130-250mm, CT 250mm.

Back into service

By that time, Italy had entered World War II on the side of the Axis powers. The two ships joined the 5th Division based at Taranto. Caio Duilio participated in a patrol intended to catch the British battleship HMS Valiant and a convoy bound for Malta, but neither target was found. She and Andrea Doria were present during the British attack on Taranto on the night of 11/12 November 1940. A force of twenty-one Fairey Swordfish torpedo-bombers, launched from HMS Illustrious, attacked the ships moored in the harbor. Andrea Doria was undamaged in the raid, but Caio Duilio was hit by a torpedo on her starboard side. She was grounded to prevent her from sinking in the harbor and temporary repairs were effected to allow her to travel to Genoa for permanent repairs, which began in January 1941.In February, she was attacked by the British Force H; several warships attempted to shell Caio Duilio while she was in dock, but they scored no hits. Repair work lasted until May 1941, when she rejoined the fleet at Taranto.

In the meantime, Andrea Doria participated in several operations intended to catch British convoys in the Mediterranean, including the Operation Excess convoys in January 1941. By the end of the year, both battleships were tasked with escorting convoys from Italy to North Africa to support the Italian and German forces fighting there. These convoys included Operation M41 on 13 December and Operation M42 on 17–19 December. During the latter, Andrea Doria and Giulio Cesare engaged British cruisers and destroyers in the First Battle of Sirte on the first day of the operation. Neither the Italians nor the British pressed their attacks and the battle ended inconclusively. Caio Duilio was assigned to distant support for the operation, and was too far away to actively participate in the battle. Convoy escort work continued into early 1942, but thereafter the fleet began to suffer from a severe shortage of fuel, which kept the ships in port for the next two years. Caio Duilio sailed away from Taranto on 14 February with a pair of light cruisers and seven destroyers in order to intercept the British convoy MW 9, bounded from Alexandria to Malta, but the force could not locate the British ships, and so returned to port. After learning of Caio Duilio departure, however, British escorts scuttled the transport Rowallan Castle, previously disabled by German aircraft.

Both ships were interned at Malta following Italy's surrender on 3 September 1943. They remained there until 1944, when the Allies allowed them to return to Italian ports; Andrea Doria went to Syracuse, Sicily, and Caio Duilio returned to Taranto before joining her sister at Syracuse. Italy was allowed to retain the two ships after the end of the war, and they alternated in the role of fleet flagship until 1953, when they were both removed from service. Andrea Doria carried on as a gunnery training ship, but Caio Duilio was placed in reserve. Both battleships were stricken from the naval register in September 1956 and were subsequently broken up for scrap.


Andrea Doria at sea in 1943

Andrea Doria en route to Malta
Andrea Doria en route to Malta to surrender, September 1943 Andrea Doria en route to Malta Andrea Doria en route to Malta to surrender, September 1943


Battleship Caio Duilo en route to Malta to surrender, September 1943


Various liveries of both battleships

Duilio
Caio Duilio, fleet flagship May 1947 - November 1949 at Taranto

Links

Specs Conway's all the world fighting ships 1922-1947.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Doria-class_battleship


Author's illustration of the Doria in 1941

Naval History

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USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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