Duca Degli Abruzzi class cruisers (1936)

(1936) - Duca degli Abruzzi, Garibaldi

The last Condottiere

This class also counting the Guiseppe Garibaldi was built by OTO shipyards in La Spezia, the lead ship being named after Luigi Amedeo, Duke of Abruzzo, Italian explorer and Admiral of the First World War. The Duca degli Abruzzi class cruisers were the final version of the long-standing Condottieri class and were larger and better protected than their predecessors.

Abruzzi doing her sea trials, 1938
Abruzzi doing her sea trials, 1938

About the Condottieri class

Understanding the "Condotierri" class and its evolution is knowing about Italian cruisers during the last war. Under this generic name roughly meaning "mercenary general". This is a reference to Renaissance wars in Italy, but the term was kept to describe successful general/statesmen, and indeed this superclass of 10 ships was often named after these historical figures. On paper, they were all light cruisers, aside the heavy cruiser classes, namely the Trento and Zara class.



The first four ships (Guissano) of 1928 were very close to the next pair (Cadorna) in size, armament and tonnage. However, the following three pairs were much larger, jumping from 6000 to nearly 10,000 tons. These were the new generation treaty cruisers, redefined by the treaty of London and putting the emphasis on more light artillery and speed. The Montecuccoli and Aosta were near-sisters, but the last pair, simplified as "Abruzzi" or often named the Garibaldi class, introduced a number of new features.

They appeared in 1937, when the first of the Litorrio new superdreadnought class and the rebuilt Duilio class battleships were introduced to the Regia Marina, equipped with a new generation of secondary armaments. There has been no successor program to the Condottieri, although a sixth group was ordered and studied but none was firmly ordered. This would have been the "Ciano class" (see later). Design of the Abruzzi

In short, the two cruisers were slightly larger than the last four ships, and their armament was augmented by two additional 152 mm guns in triple turrets at positions A and Y. The powerplant was also fully revised, allowing greater reliability but at the cost of a slightly lower maximum speed than their predecessors. The first of the two cruisers was completed in 1937, forming the 8th Cruiser Division.

General specifications



Both cruisers displaced slightly more than designed (as customary) at 11,350 tons standard and 11,735 tons fully loaded, to compare with the relatively similar third group Montecuccoli at 7,523 t (7,404 long tons) standard for 8,994 t (8,852 long tons) fully loaded. This was however only 1500 tons more than the fourth group d'Aosta (the displacement of an average destroyer). This increase was explained by the greater beam (1.30 m), additional armor as well as the two additional guns, making larger turrets, wells, and ammunition holds. Dimensions remained the same at least for the length, 171.1 at the waterline and 187 m (561–614 ft) overall, for a beam however of 18.9 m (62 ft) - compared to D'Aosta's 17.5m (57.7 feets) and a draught of 6.9 m (23 ft), also an increase of about 50 cm.

Installed power and performances

The powerplant was not anemic, with a whopping 100,000 hp (75,000 kW), less however than the 110,000 hp of her predecessor. The two shafts connected to Belluzzo/Parsons geared turbines were fed by six oil-firing Yarrow boilers. Top speed fell to 34 knots (63 km/h; 39 mph) (62 km/h) compared to 36.5 knots (67.6 km/h; 42.0 mph) on d'Aosta. Range was better however at 4,125 nmi (7,640 km; 4,747 mi) at 13 kn (24 km/h; 15 mph) compared to 3900 nautical miles due to an increase in oil storage also used as an additional buffer for ASW hits.

Armament

That's by far the most interesting part of the design. For the first time, Italy joined the "triple turrets" club on cruiser design, like UK, France, USA and Japan in the wake of the Treaty of London. One can wonder why the ships did not adopted straight away a four triple scheme like the contemporary Southampton class, but one must remember the prime rival in these waters was France, which developed the Bertin and La Galissonière class with three triple turret, or nine guns. By compromising with twin and triple turret design (the latter been untested yet), the Italians still had the advantage of ten guns while allowing some teething adjustments. However let's recall that the next class Ciano was still armed the same way.

These 152 mm guns (6-in) were the caliber 55 naval gun Model 1936. They were used also as secondary artillery on the Littorrio class battleships. The 1936 version made by OTO Melara were constructed of two tubes, a loose liner and a horizontal sliding breech block. They fired quick firing separate loading ammunition. Traverse, elevation and other functions were performed electrically. Loading was made by telescopic pneumatic rammers. Loading could be done at +20° while elevations ranged from -5° to +45°. Rate of fire was 4-5 rpm, muzzle velocity 910 m/s (3,000 ft/s) with a 50 kilograms (110 lb) HE or AP shell, with a maximum firing range of 25.7 kilometers (16.0 mi) at +45°.



Secondary artillery comprised four twin mounts 8 x 100 mm (4 in)/47 caliber guns (OTO 1937 100/47). Made by OTO on the model 1928 they were based on the 1910 the WW1 Škoda 10 cm K10 (also used by the Russians since their cruisers were Italian designed). They had a horizontal sliding breech block and an elevation range from -5° to +85°. Rate of fire was 8-10 rpm, firing a 15.2 km (9.4 mi) at 45° with a AA Ceiling of 10 km (33,000 ft) at 80° at a muzzle velocity of 880 meters per second (2,900 ft/s). Tertiary AA armament comprised eight 37 mm (1.5 in) 54-cal. guns and during the war twelve 20 mm (1 in)/65 caliber were added.

The first were Breda classic twin mounts. These automatic, gas operated guns fired a fixed ammunition QF 37 x 232mm SR HE weighting 1.25–1.63 kg (2 lb 12 oz–3 lb 9 oz). Elevation was −10° to +80° for a 60-90-120 rpm at 800 m/s (2,600 ft/s). Effective firing range 4,000 m (4,400 yd) up to 7,800 m (8,500 yd). The 20 mm AA guns were the single gas-operated Breda Model 35, with an elevation of -10 degrees to +80, 240 rpm, firing a 20×138mmB HE shell at 840 m/s (2,800 ft/s). For close quarters, they were two triple banks of 533 mm torpedo tubes. Complement also comprised four Ro.43 planes.

IMAM Ro.43

IMAM Ro.43 (1936) based on the Ro37 terrestrial observation aircraft, the standard observation and fighter aircraft of the fleet until 1943, agile but slow. Four were carried, two stored, wings folded in a hangar, two on side catapults each side of the rear funnel.

Protection

The Abruzzi Outer Belt was 30 mm (1.2 in), inner Belt 100 mm (3.9 in). The main Deck protection was 40 mm (1.6 in) down to 10–15 mm (0.39–0.59 in) on the upper deck. The turrets were protected by 135 mm (5.3 in) frontal armor, the barbettes 30 mm up to 100 mm (1.2–3.9 in). The Outer Bulkheads were 30 mm (1.2 in) and behind was an inner layer of 100 mm (3.9 in), whereas the conning Tower protection ranged from 30 mm (roof) to 140 mm (1.2–5.5 in) for the walls.

The sixth group: Ciano class

From 1937 to 1940 there was still a gap allowing the construction of two more groups of cruisers. So why none was produced? The admiralty made a conscious halt after the 5th group, both for budgetary reasons and to study foreign designs, but also because France made a similar pause with the "La Galissonnière" class... However the main reason was that a specific new type of cruiser was needed to cover operations in the Indian Ocean, to operate from a brand new base at Chisimaio close to the Kenya’s border. On 8 April, 1939 the naval plan asked for three 8000 tons light long range cruisers and many other vessels. The first was to be named in honor of a prominent Fascist party figure deceased, Admiral Costanzo Ciano.

Sources about the ships and exact sketch are still debated. The last design seemed to called for eight 155 mm/55 in quadruple turrets or 9 in triple turrets, at 45° elevation. In November, 1939 eight 90mm/50 in stabilized turrets, were also adopted as well as eight twin 20/65 in stabilized nests. According to Conway's however, the ships were simply improved versions of the Garibaldi, with the same main, secondary armament, relatively larger size (915 to 11.810 tons FL, 189 m long  by 19m), but with the main bridge and superstructure remodelled like the Litorrio class battleships. They would have a thicker deck protection, 115,000 hp for a 33 knots top speed. The second ship would have been named Luigi Rizzo, and later Venezia. However both were suspended in June 1940 while no Yard has been contacted to lay down the keels.

Garibaldi ONI
ONI recoignition plate - Garibaldi Class project

Operational career

Duca degli Abruzzi, known for her famous zebra camouflage applied in 1942 participated in the Battle of Calabria, leading the squadron of light cruisers that fired the first salvos of the battle in September 1940. Part of the fleet tried to intercept the British convoys which led to the Battle of Cape Matapan September 24, 1941.

Duca degli Abruzzi
Abruzzi in 1942 with its famous Zebra pattern

The degli Abruzzi was damaged by an aviation torpedo on 22 November 1941, was repaired, but interned by the Allies after the Italian Armistice. She later served in the South Atlantic against operations against potential German raiders. After the war, her torpedo tubes were replaced by two 4-inch anti-aircraft guns. In 1953, she was radically upgraded, equipped with a radar AN/SPS-6 2D aerial on her rear mast. Following negotiations leading to the handover of Trieste to Italy, the cruiser was transferred from Taranto to Venice, in order to strengthen Italy's position at the negotiating table. On October 26, 1954, the Duca degli Abruzzi became the flagship of the Italian naval force taking possession of the port facilities of Trieste. She served again in the Marina Militare until 1961.


Garibaldi in May 1942

On her side, Garibaldi was present and fought on 9 July 1940 at the Battle of Calabria with her sister ship, firing the first rounds of the engagement. She managed to hit the British cruiser HMS Neptune, damaging her catapult and reconnaissance aircraft beyond repair. On 1 September, attempted to intercept the Hats convoy. On 29 September, she made another attempt, this time against Operation MB 5, a supply convoy to Malta. On 11 November, she was present at Taranto when the Italian fleet was raided by British airplanes.

On 27 March, Giuseppe Garibaldi she took part in the Battle of Cape Matapan under orders of Captain Stanislao Caraciotti. On 8 May she took part in the force trying to intercept the Tiger convoy. On 28 July she was torpedoed and damaged by the British submarine HMS Upholder but survived and was repaired.

On 3 January, RN Guiseppe Garibaldi escorted the axis convoy M 43. On 7 March, she escorted the large Axis convoy V7 to Libya, teaming with Eugenio di Savoia. On 14 June, she attacked a major British convoy (Operation Vigorous), bound to Malta, which was a success. After the armistice of 8 September 1943, she was found to operate in the South Atlantic against potential German raiders like her sister ship.

After the war, she was modernized with minor changes of the armament and a radar. However, she was decommissioned in 1953 and took in hands for a complete reconstruction as a guided missile cruiser, and served during the cold war, only decommissioned in 1971.

Garibaldi as rebuilt, 1961
Garibaldi as rebuilt, 1961. This subject is for another day !

Features: (Duca degli Abruzzi, 1940)
Displacement and dimensions: Tonnage 9440 - 11 575 PC, 187 x 18.90 x 6.80m.
Propulsion and performance: 2 turbines with reducers and 8 Yarrow boilers, 2 propellers, 100,000 hp and 34 knots
Protection: Bridges 40 mm, belt 130 mm, turrets 135 mm, blockhouse 100 mm, Crew 692
Armament: 10x152 mm (2x3, 2x2), 8x100mm (4x2), 8x13 mm AA, 8 (2x4) in 1939, up to 12 x 20 mm Breda 1941-43, TLT 533 mm.


Abruzzi in 1939.

Duca degli Abruzzi
Author's HD Profile of the Duca degli Abruzzi in 1942


Author's HD Profile of the Garibaldi in May 1942

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Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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