Type IX U-Boats (1936)

Germany (1936-45) 194 produced (290 ordered)

Type IX, the long-range U-Boat

During world war two, two main types of u-boats roamed the sea: The Type VII, basically a mid-range oceanic type, able to take position in the middle of the Atlantic without refuelling, and the Type IX, the cruiser type, able to reach the American coast and cruise well beyond. 30% Larger with twice the range, Type IXs were seen as the ones that took submarine warfare on trade on the other side of the globe. The only limit was an existing supporting network of neutral ports, supply ships and "milk cows" or supply-U-Boats. They roamed the Indian Ocean like the wide expanses of the Pacific and the South Atlantic, sometimes with better success as U-Boats were not expected there and convoys system were rarely used.

Type IX

Genesis of the Type IX

The Type IX proceeded directly from the Type I, the first operational long-range type in service with the Kriegsmarine. The latter was the product of an evolution, from the Interwar designed or built export models at The Hague, especially the Spanish E-1 and Finnish Vetehinen. The u-25 and 26, the only built in 1936, were the blueprints from which were extrapolated the type IX the same year.

U-Boat Nomenclature
The Type II were early coastal types, the Type III, IV and V and VI but also VIII only existed on paper while the Type XIV was a supply model, the Type XVII were semi-experimental, late war coastal boats, the Type XXI was the true replacement for the Type VII developed from 1944 and using twice the electric power and a new revolutionary hull and the Type XXIII a coastal declination of the first.

Cutaway - New Vanguard #55 Kriegsmarine U-boats 1939-45, by Gordon Williamson
Cutaway - New Vanguard #55 Kriegsmarine U-boats 1939-45, by Gordon Williamson

Genesis of the Type IX
Albeit the concept of a large oceanic "cruiser" submarine type was already a specialty of Germany sine the Deutschland in 1915, the total interdiction to built any and the lack of orders for such types by any nations led engineers to wait until the U25 and U26 of the Type Ia were built, in 1936 at Deschimag, Bremen. They proceeded from clandestine designs of the Hague (the famous Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw den Haag), the Finnish Vetehinen and the Spanish E1 and Turkish Gür which were all above the standard size. The London treaty had watered down interdiction and left some air to breeth for the Kriegsmarine, which now virtually had free hands on the design. However the Ia were an in-between, still under 1,000 tons in displacement submerged (982 tons). As soob as the ink dried on the Type Ia blueprints, the Kriegsmarine staff decided of a larger derived design.

Therefore the development of the Type IX (next in line in the nomenclature). On paper the new boats designed and built at AG Weser, Bremen, were to have a standard diving depth of 100 m and crushing theoretical limit of 200 m. But in reality, this went well beyond that in operations. Design-wide they proceeded with existing designs, the conning tower, the hydrophone and the rudder arrangement came from the Type VII. There was one periscope in the control room and two in the conning tower.

General Design

Type IX drawing cutaway
Type IX drawing cutaway - credits: uboataces.com

Production and variants of the Type IX

The ubiquitous German Type VII was successful for the Battle of the Atlantic, but cramped, making in hard for its crew on the long run (as depicted in Wolfgang Petersen’s 1981 "Das Boot"). The Kriegsmarine needed a model that can roam the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean and the first batch of eight Type IXA which entered service in 1937-39, led to the longer range Type IXB, with 22 manufactured, followed by the Types IXC and IXC/40, with even greater fuel capacity and range, 141 entering service during the war. The Type IXD was 36 feet longer (7,30 m) to be faster (20 knots surfaced) and with a better range (up to 31,500 nautical miles).

U-37, Type IXA (The blueprints)

Type IXC (The blueprints) in Mediterranean/Tropical livery, red hull, light grey above the waterline

All in all, about 290 of these German submarines has been planned, and 195 laid down for just one never completed and 95 cancelled. Two has been preserved. This mass was impressive, even compared to the Type VII type (1000+) for such large vessel, to be related to the American industry which Gato-class was larger, but still comparable. Of course the design evolved over time. The late war Type IXD was ten meters longer and displaced 550 tons more, mostly devoted to the range. Indeed, it rose from 10,500 nmi (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 10 knots surfaced on the first 1936 model to 23,700 nmi (43,900 km; 27,300 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced on the Type IXD, so more than double.

Type IX class submarines
Various Types - Type IX.

Type IXA

The first type was designed in 1935-36 and built in a small serie in DeSchiMAG AG Weser of Bremen, eight in all: U-37 up to U-44. U-37's keel was laid down on15 March 1937. The other seven were launched until 1939. In fact the last of the serie, U-44, was laid down in 15 September 1937 but completion and fitting out took the whole years 1938-39. By November 1939, the first long-range German Submarine squadron was ready for operations: The war has just started since two months.

U-858 surrendering to the USN, en route for the Portsmouth in May 1945 with an American crew onboard. (cc) - Same as the background


Propulsion-wise, it would remain essentially the same throughout the war, to the exception of the Type IXD/42. The powerplant consisted of two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged 9-cylinder diesel engines, rated for 4,400 PS (4,300 shp; 3,200 kW). These were solid, usual type marine diesels that derived from a long line of proven units. They were mounted side by side at the rear of the engine section, approx. 5 meters from the conning tower. Their position allowed the mechanics to have access to every part for maintenance. The crankshafts were situated below the cylinders, one for each shaft. Batteries were situated below.

Two SSW (Siemens-Schukert) 1 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors were installed side by side, rated for 1,000 PS (990 shp; 740 kW). They were installed in front of the diesels, approx. 2.5 meters, and below the aft "wintergarten" behind the conning tower. The power provided was enough to propel them at 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h; 20.9 mph) on surface, but 7.7 knots (14.3 km/h; 8.9 mph) when submerged. The useful range was 10,500 nautical miles (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph), in standard surface mode, down to just 65–78 nmi (120–144 km; 75–90 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) in attack or retreat mode underwater.

U-505 engine room (msichicago.org)


The Type IXA measured 76.50 m (251 ft) (overall) by 6.51 m (21 ft 4 in) in beam, and was 9.40 m (30 ft 10 in) high to the conning tower top. As a double-hull type, the pressure hull measured 58.75 m (192 ft 9 in) by 4.40 m (14 ft 5 in).
The Type IXA had a 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) draft.
The hull was strong enough to be capable of reaching 230 m in test depth (750-770 ft), but in reality, like the smaller Type VII, many in operations had to dive below 250 m and survived to tell the story. They were extremely rugged and resilient.

Detail of the rear of a IXD/42 - Model (Pinterest)


The Type IXA submarines were given six torpedo tubes, four in the bow as a standard, two in the stern. This was the same as any Type VII U-Boats. However the total of torpedoes carried was larger, twenty-two 53.3 cm (21 in) in all, with external storage. Their warhead could vary between 617 pounds (280 kg) and 948 pounds (430 kg) depending on the models. These models can be setup to reach 6,000 m (6,600 yd), or to speed up to 44 knots (81 km/h). Part of these torpedoes, twelve in all, were stowed internally, ten were located in topside deck containers, in the external hull, 3 external containers at the stern and 2 at the bow, with two torpedoes inside each.

U-505 colorized by E. Tambunan (Pinterest)

To convey standard stored torpedoes to forward or bow torpedo room imposed to have them lifted by a crane over the deck. And to pull them inside using a cradle, set an angle which allowed them to slide into position inside the torpedo room. The case of above-deck canisters imposed to surface in calm water. The torpedo were pulled out of their compartment with winches, and lowered into the forward/bow torpedo room. The entire process took several hours for just one torpedo, making these easy targets for Allied aviation patrols.

Deck Gun
Type IXA submarines were given a 10.5 cm (4.13 in) L/45 deck gun placed on a tailored Utof mounting, forward of the conning tower. 180 rounds were carried. These rounds weighted 33.3-pound (15.1 kg), for the HE type. Muzzle velocity of 780 m/s (2,600 ft/s). Range at max elevation optimal, was 15,175 m (16,596 yd). It was able to fire on aircraft at a 10,000 m (11,000 yd) ceiling at max. elevation, manual. Rate of fire was 15 rounds per minute.

U-103 firing its main gun

AA armament
The Type IX were given two guns, a 2 cm FlaK 30 and a 3.7 cm (1.5 in) gun. -The 2 cm FlaK 30 guns installed on the "wintergarten" (aft of the conning tower) had a maximum range of 4,900 metres (5,400 yd), reduced in practice to 3,700 m against fast-moving aerial targets. Rate of fire was 280 rounds a minute at a muzzle velocity of 835 m/s (2,740 ft/s). 2cm Rounds weighed 0.71 pounds (0.32 kg). -The 3.7 cm SK C/30U practical range was 8,500 metres (9,300 yd) at up to 30 rounds per minute. Muzzle velocity was 1,000 m/s (3,300 ft/s), shell weight was 1.64 lb (0.74 kg). It was located on the aft deck, after the conning tower.

Naval Mines
As mine-layers the Type IX could carry forty-four TMA or sixty-six TMB mines. However not all IXs boats were fitted for mine operations. In theory the first sub-class given this capability were the Type IXC type.
-The German TMA was a moored mine, which floated above the surface, and could be carried and launched from each torpedo tube, so twelve total, plus 32 reloads. They were small enough to be fitted in the tubes, with a diameter of 11.1ft (3.38m)/21in (533mm), and could be moored down to a maximum Depth of 270m, and carrying a warhead of 215kg.
-The TMB model was a ground mine (settled at the bottom of the seabed), detonated by a magnetic/acoustic signature of a passing ship. It needed to be laid only in shallow waters, down to 20 meters. Slightly smaller, three could be carried in each torpedo tube, so 18 in all, less reloads. They measured 7.6ft (2.3m) in length for 53 cm in diameter and carried a warhead of 580kg.

U-107 preparing to be supplied in the south Atlantic
U-107 preparing to be supplied in the south Atlantic

Detection systems

Rendition of the FuMB-26 Tunis. Two systems were used concurrently or together on the Type IX (and Type VII): The FuMB-7 Naxos tuned to the 9 cm wavelengths. This was the British ASV Mk.III/H2S radars frequency. The FuMB-26 Tunis tuned to the 3 cm wavelengths. It was able to detect US radar emissions. The Naxos system consisted of the two leaf-like antennas at the middle of a parabolic mesh reflector. The Fliege version of the Naxos, had indeed a wing-like shape for corner-reflector elements.

The Tunis model used a horn-shaped antenna. The entire mast rotated via a mechanical linkage connected to the radio room. These antennas were not waterproof however and needed to be removed by the crew when diving. Often also a large loop antenna was found aft of these, used for direction finding in the VHF band. The "Bali" antenna was used to detect 1.5 meter signals used by earlier Royal Navy radars and had a cylindrical mesh grid.

FuMo 61 Hohentwiel This antenna was 1,400 mm wide, 1,000 mm high, but an overall width of 1, 540 mm and a overall height of 1,022 mm with its extensions. The mesh size was 15 mm. The FuMo 61 Hohentwiel was a classic detection radar Transmitter. U-530 was one of the few to receive it, installed on the starboard side of the conning tower.

Characteristics Type IXA
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,032 t surfaced, 1,152 t (1,134 long tons) submerged
Dimensions: 76.50 m x 6.51 m x 9.40 m, draft 4.70 m
Powerplant: MAN M 9 V40/46 supercharged 9-cyl. diesel, 2 × SSW 1 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors, 1,000 PS (990 shp; 740 kW)
Performances: 4,400 PS (4,300 shp; 3,200 kW)
Armament: 6 TTs (4 bow, 2 stern), 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun, 3.7 and 20 mm AA guns, mines, see notes

U-111 surrendering to an armed trawler
U-111 surrendering to an armed trawler

The Type IXA in operations

By far, the best of the first eight boats was U-37 (Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Schuch). It was by far the most successful of all Type IXA and ixth most successful U-boat. In total she sank 53 merchant vessels, about 200,124 gross register tons (GRT). She also sank two warships, and this happened through eleven war patrols, starting in August 1939, until March 1941. U-37 survived and was withdrawn (which was rare in 1941) from combat service, to be used for training U-Boat crews until the end of the war. However in May 1945 she was scuttled in Sonderburg Bay off Flensburg. U-Oberleutnant zur See Heinrich Liebe's U-38 made eleven patrols, sinking or badly damaging 30 vessels, and became the 10th most successful U-Boat of the war. U-39 (Kapitänleutnant Gerhard Glattes) was unlucky as she was sank at her first sortie by the British destroyers HMS Faulknor, HMS Firedrake, and HMS Foxhound.

U-37 entering at Cuxhaven
U-37 entering at Cuxhaven

Disabled by deep-charges, she was forced to the surface and her crew captured after attempting to sink the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal. U-40 sank no ships but hit mines on 13 October 1939 in the English Channel. U-41 sank five vessels (22,815 GRT), captured two and damaged one. She was sank by British destroyer HMS Antelope off the coast of Ireland in February 1940. U-42 (Kapitänleutnant Rolf Dau), she made only two patrols, damaging a ship, and was sank herself by HMS Imogen and HMS Ilex in 1939. U-43 (Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Ambrosius) sank 21 merchant ships (117,036 GRT), damaging two more, however in July 1943 she was spotted and sank by a torpedo plane from the escort carrier USS Santee. U-44 (Kapitänleutnant Ludwig Mathes) sank eight ships (30,885 GRT) but struck a mine off the north coast of the Netherlands in March 1940.

U-37 in drydock at Lorient
U-37 in drydock at Lorient

Type IXB: Better range

U-123 and U-201
U-123 and U-201 arriving at Lorient

The IXB represented a gradual improvement, as an improved model with increased range. Dimensions were exactly the same, with a slightly higher tonnage and more fuel carried. Range was indeed better, reaching 12,000 nmi (22,000 km; 14,000 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced, rather than 10,000 but 64 nautical miles (119 km; 74 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged, slightly less. Armament was the same, but mines are never mentioned.

Characteristics Type IXB (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,051 t surfaced, 1,178 t (1,159 long tons) submerged
Dimensions: Same as Type IX but height 9.60 m
Powerplant: Same as Type IX
Performances: Same as Type IX *Surface Range 12,500 tons
Armament: Same as Type IX

U-107 at Lorient in November 1941

The Type IXB in action

Their early service made them the most successful version of the whole serie, with an average kill ratio of over 100,000 GRT. It would Notable IXB boats included the U-123 commanded by Reinhard Hardegen. He opened up the attack in US waters, in early 1942 (Operation Drumbeat), plus U-107 operating off Freetown, Sierra Leone under Günther Hessler. He made the most successful single mission of the war, reaching in one go 100,000 GRT sunk. After commissioned the entire Type IXB group built prior to the fall of France were stationed at Wilhelmshaven and after, in the numerous French ports captured on the coast, but mostly Lorient.

The career of U-123:

U-123 at Lorient in February 1941
U-123 at Lorient in February 1941

U-123 conducted 12 war patrols in all, sinking in total 45 ships, for a total of 227,174 gross register tons (GRT). She managed to damage six others, for a grand total of 53,568 GRT. Four neutral Swedish merchantmen also fell under her torpedoes. Her first sortie started from Kiel on 21 September 1940. She ventured through gap between the Faroe and Shetland Islands and fell over off North Ireland convoys. One of the freighter she sank, the Shekatika which needed no less than five torpedoes to sink. Her final destination was her new home port, Lorient in occupied France on 23 October 1940. Her second trip was in the same area, her third was the same again. This time she ran for nine-hour, chasing the Grootekerk over 330 nmi (610 km; 380 mi) west of Rockall before being able to torpedo her.

The fourth trip of U-123 she went further west of Ireland. Yet again she had to spent five torpedoes to sink a ship. Like in many cases unfortunately there were no survivors. The fifth sortie was further south in the Atlantic, in the vicinity of the Azores and the Canary Islands. On 27 June 1941 however she was tracked down and depth charged for 11 hours but survived. The sixth sortie was around the same area but with poor results. The seventh was part of the early 1942 "second happy time" of U-Boats, along the coast of the US, called Unternehmen Paukenschlag ("Operation Drumbeat"). During this time she was strafed by a plane and near-rammed by the Kosmos II but escaped with a recalcitrant power plant.

The eight trip was again in the same area and again under her new captain Reinhard Hardegen, the 24th best U-Boat ace. For her 10th patrol U-123 had a new, ruthless commander, Horst Von Schroeter. She did the feat of sinking a British submarine, HMS P-615, 100 nmi (190 km; 120 mi) southwest of Freetown in Sierra Leone on 18 April 1943. On her 11th patrol however she was less fortunated and was depth charged off Cape Finisterre in August 1943 and she also became the first U-Boat to be fired upon and hit by a Canadian Mosquito armed with a 6-pounder (57mm) Molins gun on 7 November 1943; She was badly damaged but managed to get home for repairs. She would made another sortie of 107 days, completed in 24 April 1944. She would be discarded in June 1944 and scuttled one month later, but refloated after the war by the French. She became the Blaison (Q165), decomm. only in August 1959.

Type IXC: Better range (still)

U-124 arriving in Lorient - She was one of the most successful U-Boat of the IX serie. She was instantly recoignisable to her frog painted on the front of the conning tower and Edelweiss on the sides, classic German symbol of bravery. She was very successful, sinking 46 ships for a total of 219,862 GRT, two warships (5,775 tons) and damaging two more.

Type IXC was another step in refinement with increased storage, for a total of an extra 43 tonnes of fuel, to produce a much better range. For production simplification and in light of real use in combat, the control room periscope was dropped, leaving two tower scopes. The Type IX were fitted as mine-layers and could carry 44 TMA or 66 TMB mines, but the U-162-U-170 serie and U-505-U-550, so 35 boats in total, which were not fitted over a total of 54, so 64% of the total. Dimensions were the same, but tonnage was slightly higher. The Type IXB had a longer hull, at 76.76 m (251 ft 10 in) o/a rather than 76.50 m. With an increased fuel capacity, the Type IXC range was increased to 13,450 nmi (24,910 km; 15,480 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced, but less, 63 nmi (117 km; 72 mi) at 4 knots submerged.

U-66 and U-177 attacked by allied aviation
U-66 and U-177 attacked by allied aviation

The IXC in action

54 Type IXCs were seen active during the war. They enjoyed comparatively less success than their predecessors, but still more than the next series. One single U-boat sunk in the Gulf of Mexico, U-166, was a Type IXC. U-505 survived at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. She was completely renovated after her relocation in 2004 to a purpose-built indoor berth. She can be visited today.

Characteristics Type IXB (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,120 t (1,100 long tons) surfaced, 1,232 t (1,213 long tons) submerged
Dimensions: Same as Type IX but length 76.76 m
Powerplant: Same as Type IX
Performances: Same as Type IX *Surface Range 13,450 tons
Armament: Same as Type IX

Type IXC/40: The 1942-44 serie

The C/40 (Model 1940) which was in reality a serie of 87 boats completed in 1942-44, and proceeded from the Type IXC, as an improved version.
The serie went from U-167 to U-1235 (comm. 17 May 1944). This was the largest serie of the whole class, although the D class was to be more important.
What mostly changed was the slightly increased range and surfaced speed. Production being massive, it was spread among DeSchiMAG AG Weser, Seebeckwerft of Bremen, and Deutsche Werft of Hamburg. The external hull was wider at 6.86 m (22 ft 6 in) o/a but apparently the draft was slightly lower at 4.67 m (15 ft 4 in) versus 4.70m. These slightly larger dimensions allowed to carry more fuel, enough for a range of 13,850 nmi (25,650 km; 15,940 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced. Underwater range and speed were unchanged.

The IXC/40 in action

U-190 in June 1945.

Being completed at a time the situation of U-Boats was aggravated for the Third Reich in the North Atlantic, area of operations were diversified, but kills dropped, especially for the late boats. Life expectancy of the crews went down, especially after the entry of the US Navy's bulk into the fray. -U-170 (1942) managed to do four patrols, her first being to take service, from Kiel to Lorient, France. Her second trip led her to Brazil, where she managed to sink the Campos (4,663 tons). Her third trip was on the US east coast. She apparently failed to sink any ship. Her last trip happened off west Africa. She failed to score any hit, but on her return trip of southern Ireland, on 30 October 1944 she was badly damaged by destroyers included the Snorkel. She would surrender in Horten Naval Base, Norway on 9 May 1945. U-183 was better, sinking five ships, including in the Penang area and Java sea. U-185 was even better, sinking ten ships, Kapitänleutnant August Maus being awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. U-188 also scored 10 kills, the most in January 1944. She was scuttled in Bordeaux. U-527 had three kills, like many others.

U-530 at the Mar del Plata
U-530 at the Mar del Plata

The remains of U-534 are on display at Woodside Ferry Terminal, Birkenhead. The last boat, U-1235 reflected the fate of most U-Boats commissioned at that time. She only had time to make two combat patrols in early 1945, not sink any ships, but she was sunk on 15 April 1945 in the North Atlantic, hammered by hedgehogs from the destroyer escorts USS Stanton and Frost (Operation Teardrop).

Characteristics Type IXC/40 (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,144 t (1,126 long tons)/1,257 t (1,237 long tons)
Dimensions: Same as Type IXC but width 6.86 m
Powerplant: Same as Type IXC
Performances: Same as Type IX *Surface Range 13,850 tons
Armament: Same as Type IXC

Type IX A/B

Type IXA

Type IXC

Type IXD/42 FLAK

Type IXD: The ultimate "U-Kreuzer"

The term "U-Kreuzer" was coined in 1916 after the Deutschland made her first trips and the model was adopted into the Imperial German Navy with success. So much so the type was largely copied after war. The Type IX evolution would ultimately end for the ultimate long-range U-boat. It was much larger than previous models and geared towards very long range.

HD plan of the Type IX
Blueprint of a Type IX

U-Boat Type IXD - The blueprints

Type IXD proceeded from the same design but was significantly longer and heavier. Since underwater speed fell in previous versions, it regained some, but at the cost of a lightly reduced range. Their powerplant was completely different indeed: They were fitted with three pairs of Daimler Benz diesels, two pairs for cruise and one for high speed and battery reload. Eventually three variants would be built from this type:
-IXD1: Unreliable engines, so they were later converted as surface transport vessels.
-IXD2: The main production run, they had revised machinery and a range of 23,700 nautical miles (43,900 km; 27,300 mi).
-IXD/42: Almost identical but with with a revised machinery to produce more power, 5,400 ehp instead of 4,400.
The very long range and speed made them suitable also for transport, especially towards Japan. Therefore In 1943-1944 many boats were picked-up and stripped from their torpedo tubes to be converted as storage. They could indeed carry 252 tonnes of freight, mostly precious materials, blueprints, which Japan exploited, and return with equally precious goods Germany lacked at the time. Range also benefited from this newly found room space and rose to 31,500 nautical miles (58,300 km; 36,200 mi).

In all, DeSchiMAG AG Weser of Bremen manufactured thirty Type IXD U-boats, which entered service, for the first, U-178 on 14 March 1942 (she has been laid down on 25 November 1940, launched 1 October 1941, which reflected how much these boats were cared about (but also production disruptions and changes). The last was U-884 of the D2 type, launched on 17 May 1944 but never active. In fact she was destroyed on while fitting out in dockyard on 30 March 1945 by US heavy bombers. Series: U-177-182, U-195-200, U-847-876. The last IXD/42 serie was a rarity: Indeed the yard was only able to barely deliver two in 1945, U-883 was launched on 28 April 1944, commissioned 27 March 1945, but U-884 was still fitting out at the time she was bombed. Technically she has not been commissioned. U-885-888 were laid down but never launched. Construction was halted on 30 September 1943 and the whole serie cancelled.

Characteristics Type IXD (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,610 t/1,799 t
Dimensions: 87.58 m x 7.50 m x 10.20 m (height) x 5.35 m (draft)
Pressure hull: 68.50 m (224 ft 9 in) x 4.40 m (14 ft 5 in)
Powerplant: 6 × Daimler-Benz MB501 20 cyl. Diesel, 9,000hp (IX-D/42)
Range: 23,700 nmi (43,900 km; 27,300 mi) /10 knots surface
115 nmi (213 km; 132 mi) /4 knots submerged
Armament: Same as Type IXC or none (IX/42 transport)

U-boat U-462 (center) commanded by Lt. Bruno Vove supplies U-755- Colorized photo by ED. Tambunan (Src. Reddit)

U-Boat Aces using the Type IX

A quick look at the "hall of fame" of U-Boat aces in WW2 shows the immense domination of U-Boat commanders on the Type IX, not the Type VIIC. Apart superstars beloved by the propaganda like Gunther Prien which sank the HMS Royal Oak, the majority of successful U-Boats sorties were first and foremost made on the larger Type IX, and especially the IXC. Less were built comparatively to following series, but they were in service soon enough to accumulate victories, at least until late 1943.

This success could be explained by the long range of these boats, able to rampage in less-defended areas and shipping lanes around the globe. Even with their combined might, the British, Americans and their allies were never able to cover all possible trade networks. The efforts concentrated mainly on the North Atlantic, the Royal lane between the US and UK, and this area was already a battleground where the Type VIIC operated in majority, meeting shorter operations with greater losses. Due to the superior cost and capabilities of the Type IX it was common for U-Boat commanders successful on the VIIC to be 'promoted' on the Type IX, which had a more elite status.

Wolfgang Lüth: The second highest-scoring U-Boat ace of the war after Otto Kretschmer (which did all his career on the Type VII) was also on the VII, but also commanded a Type IXA, the U-43 and ended the war with a IXD2, the U-181. Amazingly he survived the war and was shot by a German sentry by accident on 13 May 1945.
-Wolfgang Lüth: He made 15 sorties and sank 46 ships (225,204 tons) on U-43 (IXA) and U-181 (IXD2). He also made a 205 days multi-missions trip, the second longest of the war.
-Heinrich Liebe: He made 9 sorties, sinking 34 ships (187,267 tons) on U-38.
-Viktor Schütze: 7 sorties, 35 ships for 180,073 tons on U-103.
-Karl-Friedrich Merten: 5 sorties, 27 ships sunk (170,151 tons) on U-68 (IXC).
-Georg Lassen: 4 sorties, 26 ships (156,082 tons) on U-160 (IXC).
-Werner Henke: 7 sorties, 24 ships (155,714 tons) on U-515 (IXC).
-Carl Emmermann: 5 sorties, 26 ships (152,080 tons) on U-172 (IXC).
-Heinrich Bleichrodt: 8 sorties, 24 ships (151,260 tons) part on the U-107 (IXB), 13 ships.
-Robert Gysae: 8 sorties, 25 ships for 146,815 tons, part on U-177 (IXD2).
-Ernst Kals: 5 sorties, 20 ships for 145,656 tons on U-130 (IXC)
-Johann Mohr: 6 sorties, 27 ships for 129,292 tons on U-124 (IXB)
-Klaus Scholtz: 8 sorties, 25 ships for 128,190 tons on U-108 (IXB)
-Adolf Cornelius Piening: 8 sorties, 25 ships for 126,664 tons on U-155 (IXC)
-Helmut Witte: 4 sorties, 23 ships for 119,554 tons on U-159 (IXC).
-Günther Hessler: 3 sorties for 21 ships and 118,822 tons on U-017 (IXB)
-Ernst Bauer: 5 sorties and 25 (118,560 tons) on U-126 (IXC)
-Reinhard Hardegen: 5 sorties, 22 ships (115,656 tons) on U-123 (partly) (IXC)
-Werner Hartmann: 4 sorties, 26 ships (115,337 ton) partly on U-198 (IXD2)
-Robert-Richard Zapp: 5 sorties, 16 ships (106,200 tons) partly on U-66 (IXC).
-Jürgen Oesten: 13 sorties, 19 ships (101,744 tons) partly on U-106 (IXB)
-Wilhelm Rollmann: 8 sorties, 22 ships (101,519 tons) mostly on U-848 (IXD2)
-Erwin Rostin: 2 sorties, 17 ships (101,321 tons) on U-158 (IXC)
-Hans-Ludwig Witt: 3 sorties, 19 ships (100,773 tons) on U-129 and U-166 (IXC)
-Harald Gelhaus: 11 sorties, 19 ships on 100,373 tons on U-107 (IXB)
-Werner Hartenstein: 5 sorties, 20 ships for 97,504 tons on U-156 (IXC)
-Fritz-Julius Lemp: 10 sorties, 20 ships for 96,639 tons on U-110 (IXB)
-Karl-Heinz Moehle: 10 sorties, 21 ships 93,197 tons partly on U-123 (IXC)
-Georg-Wilhelm Schulz: 8 sorties, 19 ships 89,886 tons partly on U-124 (IXB)
-Georg Schewe: 10 sorties and 16 ships for 85,779 tons partly on U-105 (IXB)
-Hans-Georg Friedrich Poske: 4 ships for 16 ships and 85,299 tons on U-504 (IXC)
-Ulrich Heyse: 5 sorties and 12 ships for 83,639 tons on U-37 and U-128 (IXC)
-Ulrich Folkers: 5 sorties and 17 ships for 82,873 tons on U-37 and U-125 (IXC)
-Herbert Kuppisch: 14 sorties and 16 ships 82,108 tons partly on U-847 (IXD)
-Jürgen Wattenberg: 3 sorties and 14 ships for 82,027 tons on U-162 (IXC)
-Werner Winter: 5 sorties and 15 ships for 79,302 tons partly on U-103 (IXB)
-Jürgen von Rosenstiel: 4 sorties and 14 ships for 78,843 tons on U-502 (IXC).

Liveries and camouflage of the Type IX
Liveries and camouflage of the Type IX

Sources/Read More
//www.historynet.com/type-ix-u-boat.htm https://coollib.com/b/297951/read - Excellent source !

U-858 surrendering to the USN, escorted by a patrol boat to Portsmouth in May 1945. A very famous color photo and movie (cc)

3D renderings
Type IXA on tubosquid

Model Kits

U107 HD rendering, profile and deck
Bronco 1/350 NB5009 German Long Range Submarine U-IXB Model Kit
//store.spruebrothers.com/product_p/rvg05114-os.htm (Revell 1/72 IXC late U-505)
HobbyBoss DKM U-Boat Type IXC 1/700

Colors and markings of Kriegsmarine boats (Scribd)

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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