Leipzig class light cruisers of the Kriegsmarine (1929)

Germany (1928-35), Leipzig, Nürnberg

The last light German cruisers

The Leipzig class represented the last two light cruisers of the German Reichsmarine (and Kriegsmarine). Same class but the second, KMS Nürnberg, was built to a slightly modified design and is sometimes seen separately by some authors. They clearly had sets of improvements over the "K" (Königsberg) class cruisers, larger and with a more efficient main battery arrangement, and better armor. Nürnberg was completed in 1935, both were used during WW2 as minelayers and escort vessels and both were torpedoed 13 December 1939 by the British submarine HMS Salmon. Surviving and repaired, they missed the Norwegian Campaign (perhaps for their own good) and were used in secondary roles for most of the rest of the war, mirroring the rest of Raeder's surface fleet.

KMS Leipzig

Design of the Leipzig class

Before going into design differences between the two sister-ship, let's have a look on their similarities, compared to the previous "K" (Königsberg) class. First off, they displaced 1500 tonnes more, up to 9960 short tonnes fully laded versus 7,700 long tons (7,800 t) for the previous cruisers. They had the same beam at 16.3 m versus 15.3 on the previous ships, but their initial length before revision was 177 m (581 feets) overall, versus 174 m (571 feets). In fact, Nürnberg reached 181.3 m (595 feets) after design changes, giving her an even better lenght-to-ratio and preserving top speed.

Hull and armour protection

Leipzig's cut showing its internal armour arrangement
Leipzig's cut showing its internal armour arrangement

Like previous cruisers, construction called for welding for 90% on the longitudinal steel frames in order to save weight. They also had a comprehensive ASW compartimentation. The hull was indeed divided into fourteen watertight compartments and a double bottom extending on 83% of the length. The also had side bulges and a bulbous bow. Armour protection only varied in details: The Belt was the same in thickness at 50 mm (2 in) the armoured deck was even thinner at 30 mm (40 mm (1.6 in) on the 'K'), the Conning tower had the same 100 mm (3.9 in) walls, but the turrets had now 80 mm (3.1 in) faces with Barbettes 60 mm (2.4 in) thick. Both the Leipzig and Nürnberg had the same armored deck 30 mm (1.2 in) thick amidships and 50 mm (2.0 in) belt, inclined downwards however to a greater degree than for the Königsberg for better effectiveness. It was connected to the deck with a 25 mm (0.98 in) stray. The conning tower roof was 50 mm thick. The gun turrets had 35 mm (1.4 in) sides and 32 mm (1.3 in) roofs, but 80 mm faces after revision on the Leipzig. Both ships however diverged in detail: KMS Leipzig had Krupp cemented armor, but Nürnberg received the newly developed "Wotan" Hart steel.

Wow's rendition of the Koenigsberg class
Wow's rendition of the Koenigsberg class


Machinery was slightly different, although relying on the same principle of combining turbines and diesel engines for better autonomy. Like previous vessels they had two MAN 10-cylinder diesel engines, but whereas the K class had four geared steam turbines mated on 2 screw propellers, the Leipzig class had three shaft propellers, the two MAN diesels being mated on the central shaft, and two turbines on the outwards shafts. Total power was less, but speed was about the same, 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph). Autonomy was logically better, the K class being able to reach 5,700 nmi, and the Leipzig only 6700 at 10/19 kn (35 km/h; 22 mph) by adding diesels and turbines.

The turbines were manufactured by the Deutsche Werke and Germaniawerft shipyards, ans the same also assembled the 7-cylinder double-acting two-stroke diesel engines delivered by MAN. Both had their turbines fed by six Marine-type double-ended oil-fired boilers. In total the output of 60,000 shaft horsepower (45,000 kW) was added to a total of 12,400 shp (9,200 kW) for the central pair of diesel engines alone. 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph) was the design speed, easily reached on trials. The range of 3,900 nautical miles (7,200 km; 4,500 mi) at 10 knots only refers to the diesel engines. The turbines alone provided 2,800 nmi (5,200 km; 3,200 mi) at 16.5 kn (30.6 km/h; 19.0 mph), so a total of 6700 nautical miles.

Both vessels had also almost the same, rather extensive electrical generator systems but differed slightly: Leipzig had three turbogenerators, 180 kilowatt each plus a 180 kW diesel generator for a combined 1,080 kW/220 volts. KMS Nürnberg however had four units, two 300 kW turbo-generators plus two 350 kW diesel generators, total 1,300 kW. Both ships were also steered by the same single balanced rudder augmented by a steering apparatus mated on the engine transmissions. This allowed the cruiser to still steer if the gear was destroyed or jammed, using gears that could drive half of the engines astern and half forward. This system could also allow the ships to turn at sharper angles, making them as agile as destroyers. As shown by early service however, they were good seaboats but both suffered from weather helm and severe leeway at low speeds. This was even worse for KMS Nürnberg with her larger superstructure, acting as a sail. Both carried a similar boat fleet, two picket boats, two barges, two launches, and two cutters all stored behind the main funnel and served by two goose cranes either side of the funnel also used to lift the floatplanes.

Wow's renditions of the KMS Nürnberg class


Armament was the same at least for the main artillery, with three triple turrets but arrangement was different (more rationale and arguably much better). AA was limited to just two 8.8 cm (3.46") SK L/45 anti-aircraft guns (It was the 1930s after all), like the K class, and close combat capabilities bolstered by four triple torpedo tubes, two per broadside, also on both classes, however the modified Nürnberg had 21 inches (533 mm) torpedoes instead of 20 inches (500 mm) and a better AA as revised. So overall, larger vessels, less autonomy, slight protection improvements, main artillery management, but the best improvement of the class was to carry two Arado 196 floatplanes for reconnaissance. This truly made them "eyes" for the fleet.

KMS Nürnberg forward turret at max elevation
KMS Nürnberg forward turret at max elevation

Main guns:
Both ships shared the same nine 15 cm (5.9") SK C/25 guns. They were designed from 1927 with a loose barrel, jacket and breech-piece with a vertical sliding breech block. They shared also the same Drh. LC/25 triple mounting, a unique case in the Kriegsmarine. This mount weighed 136.91–147.15 tonnes, for 20–30 mm (0.79–1.18 in) armour thickness, the latter figure being for the better armoured Nürnberg's (80 mm face). They had a full 360° of traverse, reduced by the ship's superstructure, a point the longer Leipzig corrected. As a reminder, to resolve the issue, the "K" clas had aft offset turrets. One was mounted on the forward deck, and two in superfiring position aft, all centerline, and keeping the gravity point low.

Aft superfiring turret of the Königsberg, similar.

The mounts had electrically powered hydraulic pumps for elevation, at the rate of 8° per second, and traverse at 6-8° per second. Their rate of fire (cyclic) was about, 7.5 seconds, an excellent 8 rounds per minute. This was indeed surprisingly good for manually loaded and rammed guns. To avoid interference, the three guns fired at a fraction of a second interval in volleys. The ammunition was supplied by three hoists at the rear of the mount. They fired four types of ammunitions: The base-fused HE shell with ballistic cap called Sprenggranate L/4.5 m Bdz m. Hb, the nose-fused HE shell with ballistic cap 15 cm Spgr. L/4.4 Kz m. Hb and a base-fused armor-piercing shell with ballistic cap Panzer-Sprenggranate L/3.7 m Bdz. m Hb, all three weighting 45.5 kg for 960 m/s muzzle velocity, and 25,700 metres (28,100 yd) range at 40°, as well as an illumination shell. Both ships carried 120 and 166 shells per gun, so 1,080 and 1,500 rounds total, respectively.

8.8cm on the KMS Koenigsberg in 1934

The FLAK was considerably reinforced during WW2. Here, on KMS Nürnberg.

Secondary guns and AA
Initially, all these cruisers carried just two traditional 8.8 cm SK L/45 naval gun. L was for "länge" and SK for Schnelladekanone (Quick firing). Basically they were derived from WW1 models, and its lineage with go through WW2 as one of the most fearsome artillery pieces of all times. They were protected by an armoured, rounded shield, weighted 2.5-2.8 tonnes and needed crew of four to operate. They used a Breech vertical sliding-wedge system and fired a 9–10 kgs (20–22 lb) 3.5 in shell. The SKC/30 mount elevated -10° to +70° and its rate of fire was about 15 RPM, with a muzzle velocity up to 890 m/s (2,900 ft/s), a range of 14,100 metres (15,400 yd) at +43° and ceiling of 9,150 metres (30,020 ft) at 70° elevation. They fired four types of ammunitions, the Armor Piercing (AP) - 10 kg (22 lb), High Explosive (HE) - 9 kg (20 lb), High Explosive Incendiary (HEI) - 9.5 kg (21 lb) and Illumination (ILLUM) shell, 9.4 kg (21 lb). KMS Leipzig carried 800 rounds of ammunition.

ONI recoignition sheet for the Leipzig
ONI recoignition sheet for the Leipzig

ONI recoignition sheet for the Nürnberg
ONI recoignition sheet for the Nürnberg

KMS Nürnberg however received a number of modifications: Not only her torpedo tubes were upgraded to the new 21-in standard G7 model, but her anti-aircraft artillery was considerably enhanced, and this alone separated her from her sister-ship: Instead of just two 8.8 cm AA guns she had eight, and in addition four twin 3.7 cm SK C/30 guns and eight single 2 cm C/30 guns. Therefore during WW2 these figures barely changed. Only Leipzig received additions (see later).

Both ships had a similar profile with a single funnel, but Nürnberg had a much larger and blocky forward superstructure. Leipzig's onw superstructure was just derived from the Königsberg class. Nürnberg added around the funnel a large searchlight platform to improve their night firing capabilities. The crew also varied on both ships (notably because of the AA), Leipzig in peacetime reichsmarine service having 26 officers and 508 enlisted men, but 24 officers and 826 sailors in WW2, and the admiral staff if needed, 6 officers, 20 men as flagship. Nürnberg had 25 officers and 648 ratings but this grew to 26 officers and 870 sailors.

Arado 196, perhaps the only justification to the ship's larger design. These floatplanes designed by Walter Blume first flew in 1937 and became the standard cantilever monoplanes of the Kriegsmarine, propelled by a BMW 132K 9-cyl. ACR of 947 hp. More than 540 were produced, armed with defensive MGs and two 20 mm (0.787 in) MG FF cannon, plus bombs. At first the cruisers operated a pair of Heinkel He 60 biplane floatplanes, replaced by the Arado Ar 196 by 1939. They were operated by a single catapult which diverged in position between the two ships: Between the funnel and the forward superstructure for Leipzig, aft of the funnel for her sister ship.

Wartime modifications

Both cruisers were rapidly given a degaussing coil to protect them against magnetic mines. KMS Leipzig saw her aircraft, and catapult removed in 1941 and torpedo tubes while radar was installed. Nürnberg had the same modifications in early 1942. Both cruisers radar suites were upgraded, at first in March 1941 a FuMO 21 radar set, in early 1942, a FuMO 25 for detection of surface targets and low-flying aircraft, short range. The FuMO 63 Hohentwiel 50-cm radar was installed later, while KMS Nürnberg was given four Metox radar warning receivers. Leipzig received the 24/25 radar set in early 1943, her last wartime modification.

Leipzig's anti-aircraft armament was first upgraded by firring twin 8.8 cm mounts and from 1941, eight 37 mm FLAK guns in four twin mounts were installed as well as fourteen 2 cm individual guns. This was reduced in 1944 to eight. Nürnberg's AA battery was already impressive, but she received in late 1942 two quadruple 2 cm Flakvierling mounts, on the navigating bridge and on top of the aft superfiring turret. By May 1944, there was a proposal to add several Bofors 40 mm guns, but just two were added, on the bridge and former catapult spot. Two more Navy Flakvierlings were added, replacing the one over the superfiring turret, and another in front of the AA fire director, while the Army Flakvierlings they replaced were relocated on the main deck. By December 1944, it was proposed to add eight 3.7 cm FlaK 43, two more Flakvierling and ten 20 mm twin guns, but other priorities prevented it.

Author's illustration: KMS Leipzig

Author's illustration: KMS Nürnberg

KMS Nürnberg specifications

Dimensions177 x 16.30 x 5.65 m
Displacement6200 t/8380 t FL
Propulsion2 screws, 2 Brown-Boveri turbines, 66,000 hp, 2 MAN diesels 12 400 hp
Speed32/19 knots (xx km/h; xx mph) Radius 5700 Nautical Miles
Armament9(3x3)x 152 mm, 6x 88 mm AA, 8x 37mm AA, 12(4x3) TT 533 mm, 120 mines, 2 planes
ArmorBelt: 30 mm (), Deck: 25 mm (), Turrets 30mm, Conning tower: 30 mm ()

First Published on 2016/07/22

Sources/read More

Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger: Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1922–1946.
Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Vol. I: Major Surface Vessels.
Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945
Whitley, M. J. (1983). Lesser Known Warships of the Kriegsmarine No. 1/2
Williamson, Gordon (2003). German Light Cruisers 1939–1945.
Die 8,8 cm Flugzeugabwehrkanone L/45 (8,8 cm Flak. L/45) in 8,8 cm Mittel-Pivot-Lafette C/1913 (8,8 cm M.P.L.C./1913).
Gander, Terry; Chamberlain, Peter (1979). Weapons of the Third Reich
Hogg, Ian V. (1997). German Artillery of World War Two
(maritime-executive.com) Leipzig rediscovered off Norway

The Leizpig class cruisers in action:

Both cuisers participated in non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War until 1937. From September 1939 they were both used as minelayers and for escort duties, but barely two months after the war started, 13 December 1939, they were torpedoed by the HMS Salmon, a British sub. Thos "double kill" failed to sink them due to their good ASW protection, but the Kriegsmarine avoid exposing them thereafter and they were kept for secondary roles, notably training, although Leipzig brought close artillery support to the troops on the Eastern Front. Nürnberg became a war prize for the Soviet Navy, starting a new but shot career as Admiral Makarov, until the late fifties, BU 1960.

Cruiser Leipzig seen from the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal

KmS Leipzig

Reichsmarine and interwar years

Leipzig was laid down at the Reichsmarinewerft shipyard, Wilhelmshaven on 28 April 1928, launched on 18 October 1929 and commissioned on 8 October 1931. So far she served in the Reichsmarine, training in the Baltic Sea throughout until 1933 and alternating with overseas goodwill cruises. In 1934 she sailed with Königsberg to the United States for the first time, but later entered the drydock at Kiel to received an aircraft catapult and crane while the old single 8.8 cm were replaced with modern twin AA mounts, bringing to total to four. In 1935 she joined the the old Schlesien, Deutschland, and Köln for fleet exercises wans was visited by Adolf Hitler later that year. In 1936, she also teamed with Nürnberg and Köln for exercises in the Atlantic and in the summer, took part in neutrality patrols off Spain as the Civil War broke out. These patrols went on until the next summer 1937. In late June, her captain reported an incident: She was allegedly torpedo attacked ny Republicans. Decision was therefore made to retite all ships patrolling in Spanish waters. Leipzeig was back to Baltic Sea for training until the end of 1938. In March 1939, the annexation of Memel from Lithuania took place, covered by her guns and from other ships. In April she joined KMS Gneisenau and Deutschland, for major exercises in the Atlantic, assumed to be the last before a war erupted, until May-June.

KMS Leipzig photography, entering the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal.

Wartime career

By September 1939, KMS Leipzig joined the blocking force placed to prevent the escape of the Polish Navy, but it missed it, as Operation Peking took place. She then joined the North Sea,to assist other light cruisers by laying several defensive minefields until the end of the month. She then took part in Baltic training exercises and by mid-November, covered another minelaying operation in the North Sea. She was added to a small raiding task force composed of the Deutschland, Köln, and three torpedo boats, to try to disrupt allied shipping in the Skagerrak on 21–22 November. Later, KMS Leipzig escorting Scharnhorst and Gneisenau through the Denark strait for another raid, and covered their return on the november, 27.

On 13 December, she escorted destroyers and minelayers through the Skagerrak for laying more minefields, but was spotted en route by British submarine HMS Salmon, plaed there in ambush. HMS Salmon launch a torpedo volley, then another, and ht the Leipzig at 11:25, just below the waterline. Fortunately for the cruiser, her bulkhead absorbed the shock at the juncture of boiler rooms. But the armored deck was bented and the keel als damaged while 1,700 t of seawater flooded her. The electrical power and pumping system stopped, two boiler rooms were submerged, steam lines damaged, and port turbine stopped. Nürnberg also a hit. The former was immediately assisted by two destroyers, closing to port, while the others gave chase. One hour passed and one destroyer was torpedoed off the mouth of the Elbe while Leipzig had a near-miss. If the second torpedp had made its mark, the cruiser would probably had been sunk.

Leipzig limped back to Kiel, entered the Deutsche Werke shipyard for very long repairs, decommissioned and later reclassified as a training ship. Apparenty the Kriegsmarine did not wanted to risk her more. Plans were made for transformations: A new superstructure was to be built to accommodate trainees while four boilers were removed to gain more room. She was recommissioned in late 1940, missing te Norwegian campaign. Until early June 1941 she trained cadets, and then departed for an escort mission, conducting the heavy cruiser Lützow to Norway. Back in the Baltic she she teamed with Emden to shell Russians positions along the path of invading German forces during Operation Barbarossa. By September 1941, she covered the invasion of the Baltic islands, West Estonian archipelago, shelling Soviet positions on Moon Island. At this occasion, the Soviet submarine Shch-317 was nearby and tried to attack her but missed. By late September, she teamed with the German Baltic Fleet (flagship Tirpitz) assembled to stop any Soviet attempt to break out of the Baltic. She was back to Kiel in October for manoeuvrers with Admiral Scheer and she became the flagship of the training fleet by 1942.

KMS Leipzig was taken in hands in March 1943 for a short overhaul and she was back to escort ships in the Baltic by mid-September 1944. She covered troopships between Gotenhafen and Swinemünde with Admiral Scheer on 14 October, also to take mines there. However there was a heavy fog, she collided heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen, steaming at 20 knots. Just when she was hit, Leipzig was switching from her diesel to steam turbines, caught uncoupling the former, so she had no means of propulsion and was drifting into the path of Prinz Eugen. She was struck on her port side, just forward of her funnel, the heavy cruiser's clipper bow stucking out beyond the starboard side. The number 3 port engine room was destroyed, another was flooded and the ship had 39 deaed of injured crewmen. Both ships remained stuck together for more than 24h until Leipzig was towed off her misery to Gotenhafen. There, a commission examined the damage, judged too severe for repairs. She was only patched to remain afloat in the harbor, waiting for better times.

The cruiser however was still commissioned, and provided AA fire by March 1945, as the Red Army closed on Gotenhafen. On 24 March, she steamed to Hela, packed with refugees, at 6 knots (11 km/h; 6.9 mph) with her remaining boilers. During this harrowing trip she was repeatedly attacked by Soviet aviation, and near-missed by torpedoes from two submarines. She reached Denmark on 29 April, waiting the end of the war. She was subsequently used as a barracks ship for the German Mine Sweeping Administration after the war. The latter were tasked by the allies to clear mines off the German coast. Leipzig was eventually towed out and scuttled at sea in July 1946 to create an artificial reef.

KmS Nürnberg

Nürnberg was laid down in 1934 at Deutsche Werke Kiel, launched 6 December 1934, completed and commissioned on 2 November 1935. She started by a training cruise in the Baltic Sea which lasted until April 1936, joining Köln and Leipzig for another cruiser in the Atlantic. She became the flagship of the reconnaissance forces and served also in the Baltic in a serie of exercises. Like her sister ship, KMS Nürnberg made non-intervention patrols off the Spanish coast during Civil War, until 1939, under order of Konteradmiral Hermann Boehm. She conducted four patrols without incident but the report of a possible attack by an unidentified submarine off the Balearic Islands, 16 July 1937.

By September 1937, KMS Nürnberg was participating in fleet manoeuvres with KMS Admiral Graf Spee and Deutschland, her sister ship and Karlsruhe. In early 1938 she was in the Baltic, and during the summer made training cruise to Norway. By August, she participated in the Kiel fleet review in presence of Adolf Hitler and the regent of Hungary, Miklós Horthy. In March 1939 she cover and operation to seize Memel and later joined Graf Spee, Leipzig and Köln for a training cruise in the Mediterranean, stopping at various Spanish ports. From May 1939 she was training in the Baltic.

Nürnberg, recoignition book (ONI ?)

Wartime career

In September 1939, KMS Nürnberg was sent to the force in charge of intercepting the Polish Navy escaping from the Baltic, but failed. Two days later, the German light cruiser followed the fleet to the North Sea laying defensive minefields in order to secure the coastline. Back to the Baltic she resumed her training exercises routine the next month and in November she was back to the North Sea to cover this time a squadron of destroyers laying minefields off the British coast. By early December, she took part in another minelaying mission off Kristiansand (Norway).

However as she was escorting on 13 December the destroyers back from another minelaying mission off the British coast, HMS Salmon watited in ambush, and launch torpedoes. Nürnberg watchmen spotted in time two torpedo tracks ahd the captaine turned hard to port, evading one ahead of the ship, but the second hit her bow. The captain order to nearly stop at 12 knots in order to inspect the damage. At this moment HMS Salmon has reloaded and launched yet another spray, three more torpedo tracks being spotted to port. Order was given to full speed and hard starboard turn, but two torpedoes exploded its wake, short of the stern. The explosion caused flooding no damage as the watertight bulkheads absorbed the schock. At last the HMS Salmon was spotted and briefly engaged by Nürnberg, firing her aft main battery turret but scoring no hit. She limped back to port at 18 knots but en route was attacked again by another British submarine, HMS Ursula on 14 December as she was entering the Kiel Canal off Brunsbüttel. Immediately placed in drydock at Deutsche Werke her repairs lasted until April 1940.

Kapitän zur See (KzS) Otto Klüber took command in June 1940, and the ship was mobilized for Operation Juno, Gneisenau and Scharnhorst raid. But this was cancelled later and instead, she was transferred to Norway. She left Kiel on 10 June, escorted by the TBs Falke and Jaguar and two days later left her TBs to refuel at Stavanger while she steamed in zig-zag at 27 knots by fear of other submarines, joining on 13 June the 2nd Minesweeper Flotilla. KMS Nünberg escorted them off Trondheim and on 17 June she reached Narvik. She spent the whole month of July there. One of her two Arado Ar 196 floatplane spotted and attacked a British submarine, without sucess, the only action there. By 25 July, she was ordered with a flotilla of destroyers and torpedo boats to escort the damaged battleship Gneisenau from Trondheim to Kiel, which they reached on 28 July. Indeed Gneisenau was torpedoed by the British submarine.

KMS Nürnberg underway, date unknown
KMS Nürnberg underway, date unknown

By 8 August, KzS Leo Kreisch took command and until the end of 1940, KMS Nünberg spent training in the Baltic sea. She was visited while in Gotenhafen by Italian Admiral Mavagini in September 1940 and entered Deutsche Werke dockyard for a short refit in October-November 1940. On 15 February 1941 it was decided by the Kriegsmarine staff to reclassify her as a training cruiser like her sister ship. She was assigned to the Fleet Training Squadron, tasked to train future U-boat officers in order to crew the numerous flotillas built to be engaged in the Battle of the Atlantic. Part of her crew also became U-Boat crewmen. However by June 1941, she had the occasion to be useful again. Sent to the Baltic Fleet task force headed by the new battleship KMS Tirpitz she was tasked to wait for a possible sortie of the Soviet Baltic fleet. Ultimately as this scenario never materialized, the fleet was dispersed and Nürnberg resumed her training until 1942. In January she was refitted, aircraft removed, radar modernized, AA expanded. She was damaged during an allied air raid and was repaired, returning into service only by 23 August.

After sea trials lasting until October 1942 she was sent to the flotilla based in Norway, departing on 11 November Gotenhafen for Trondheim (18 November), then she was moved to a less exposed position, Bogen Bay, outside Narvik in December. A new fleet was headed by Tirpitz again, to raid nortern allied convoys, bound to Murmansk. The German light cruiser however saw no action and on 27 April 1943 she left Narvik for home, stopping at Trondheim. Back in Kiel on 3 May she entered the drydock to have her machinery overhauled and later after new sea trials, she joined the Training Squadron in the Baltic, having her crew amputated and replaced quite frequently. On board discipline and esprit de corps was low, but she kept her duty all along the year 1944 seeing no action, not even shore bombardment on the Eastern Front like her sister ship.

Early in 1945 she was sent for another minelaying mission in the Skagerrak, based in Oslo. She participated in Operation Titus on 13 January, covering two destroyers, two torpedo boats, and a minelayer and she laid herself 130 mines. As fuel shortages amounted, U-Boats had priority and she was not active afterwards. On 24 January, she was sent to Copenhagen (Denmark), remaining here until the end of the hostility; For the anecdote, the fuel situation was so bad that her tanks were filled with 270 long tons (270 t) of synthetic fuel in case she had to move. Her crew was also reduced to the strict operating minimum. By 5 May 1945 she was ordered to stop military operation and on 22 May, she was escorted by HMS Devonshire and HMS Dido to enter custody under allied supervision, and await her fate.

Nürnberg surrendering to the allies in May 1945
Nürnberg surrendering to the allies in May 1945: She is escorted by a Coastal Command (RAF) Consolidated Liberator patrol bomber.

Post War service

On 24 May 1945, Nürnberg and Prinz Eugen departed Copenhagen to Wilhelmshaven, which they reached on 28 May. As decided in the Potsdam Conference she was awarded to the Soviet Union. The allies however still remembering the 1919 scuttling, both vessels were seized by British crews on 19 December. KMS Nürnberg was by then in drydock. The same day, they were presented to a Soviet delegation, and handed over officially. On 2 January a Soviet crew arrive and prepare the ship for a departure. The prize flotilla comprised also the target ship Hessen and her radio-control vessel, a single destroyer, Z15, the torpedo boats T33 and T107. They departed for Libau (Latvia).

As they arrived a trough examination was made by Soviet engineers, which estimated she was fit for service. She entered commission under the new name of Admiral Makarov. He first assignation was the 8th Fleet in Tallinn. By late 1948 she became its flagship, carrying the mark of Vice Admiral F. V. Zozulya. However as new Chapayev-class cruisers entered service, it was decided to remove Admiral Makarov from the 8th fleet. She became a training cruiser based in Kronstadt, starting this new career by mid-1954. Her German light AA was removed, and new Soviet-built radars installed. Records showed she was no longer in service by May 1959, mothballed and scrapped around 1963-65, by that time the last surviving warship of the Kriegsmarine, but not the last German major warship, the record being detained by TGC Yavuz, the ex-Goeben, in 1971.

Nürnberg in 1946, off the Kiel canal.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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