The French Algérie, best Washington treaty heavy cruiser of the interwar

The best "washington" cruiser?

The Algérie was the last French heavy cruiser. She was also -as many authors agrees- certainly one of the very best, if not the best "Washington cruiser". Meaning, built within the Washington treaty limitations (1922). She proceeded from two earlier heavy cruisers designs but took a radically new approach and ended as a finely balanced one. But she was also the only one of her class because of global tonnage limitations, and unfortunately a ship which ended scuttled in November 1942.

Colorized - Algerie
Colorized photo by Hirotoko Jr. - From ONI identification book USN

The Washington treaty limits

The Washington treaty (signed by all major naval powers in 1922) was the embodiement of political power on the military and especially the navy. The needs of the navies were simply ignored or partially obtained after a wave of compromises.

The truth is this treaty left most nation's own navy staff and some politicians deeply frustrated. But tax-payer side and lifting all egos apart, it helped also contain a dangerous trend in naval spending, towards even more larger and more powerful capital ships. It's easy to see this mad race in 1917-18 projects: 50,000+ tons warships armed with eight to twelve 457 in guns...

The treaty not only stop this tonnage-wise per ship (on a qualitative level), on the nation's authorized global tonnage and per-type tonnage, but also imposed a ten years moratorium. Seven years after an historical financial crisis at Wall street would have condemn any or these policies anyway.

France and naval treaties

France in particular was left unsatisfied by the treaty, which left her with 175,000 tons globally, the same as Italy whereas she estimated having more needs because or her more expansive colonial empire. The other nation, for the same reason, that felt frustrated was Japan, whose ambition was parity with the two "greats", RN and USN, to built her empire.

Now some French policitians however saw these limitations salutary for budgetary concerns. And indeed, it was realism through and through: France has not remotelly close the budget to fill her ambitions, barely enough even to reach the limitations. Her huge ww1-era "prototype" fleet was 80% absolete and of dubious military value. The washington treaty would make this interwar a playground for new naval theories and help France securing "new blood" for her navy, with almost all new classes of ships and produced a compact, homogeneous, modern and well-balanced navy, amidst political turmoil and the 1929 crisis, but thanks to the stable policy of two visionary ministers, Georges Leygues and François Pétrie. The shadow of the "young school" gabegie was still lurking over their folders.

Neither the following Geneva conference of 1927 and 1932 or the London treaty of 1930 made an impact on these policies, but the annoucement of the rearmment of Germany from 1933, quite obvious by 1935, made France denouncing the treaties and retired, just as Japan.

The 120,000 tons limited agreed in the Anglo-German naval treaty of 1935 would not changed the outcome and soon after Italy retired also whereas the treaty attempt at London the next year ended as a failure. But the 1929 crisis consequences had shattered old Europe, and amidt political turmoil in France, construction of new cruiser was stopped altogether.

Only the St Louis was projected in 1938, yet another radically new design (St Louis class) that borrowed to the popular concepts of the time, a 3x3 main artillery configuration among others, but largely inspired by the Algérie in terms of protection and general balance.


Algérie underway in 1943, USN photo for ONI identification book

Towards a better heavy cruiser design

Cruisers were no exceptions: The last ones were built in 1901-1902. 1912 projects has been scrapped. In 1922-23, came the Primauguet of a brand new design, followed by the heavy cruiser series Duquesne and Suffren, six ships relatively similar and also sharing the same issue: On the always true triptych speed/armament/protection, the cursor was set on the first two.

Also typical of the 1920's and early 30' fad of Mediterranean "tin-clad cruisers", these ships lacked also good AA. The Algérie tried to set the cursor right in the center of the tryptich, therefore more towards protection, while sacrificing part of the speed and through compromised.

In the end it was a very well balanced design. The best France ever produced for an interwar cruiser and certainly one of the best at that time. With more time, the St Louis class then in construction would have beaten this probably. They were closer to the American Baltimore, no longer a washington cruiser by any margin in 1942.

Algérie circa 1936-37
Algérie circa 1936-37 - ONI naval recoignition USN intelligence plate, 1943

Design and Development of the Algérie


ONI- naval recoignition USN intelligence plate of the Algerie

Overall design

As it was said, The Algérie came after a series of cruisers criticized for their cruel lack of protection and too light construction, better suited for th Mediterranean than the Atlantic. The lack of range and AA could be added to the mix.

A new type of heavy cruiser subjected to Washington tonnage was studied under a new direction. This time it was an attempt clearly focused towards protection. Algérie was voted by the parliament under the provisional code PN 141, part of the 12 january 1930 law also funding the minelayer cruiser Emile Bertin and the famous super-destroyers of the Le Fantasque class.

The final design approved resulted in more modest dimensions, a flush-deck hull, revised interior designs, but a near-unchanged speed and armament (the true miracle of this design) in favor of excellent overall protection. But for the naval staff, she was mostly built in response to the Italian Zara-class cruisers, which themselved were better protected than the Trento. So the Algérie as a fitting response has to incorporater even better armour than not only previous French cruisers, but the Zara class themselves.

Her dimensions were the result of weight-saving measures, and this included significant savings by scrapping the traditional forecastle for a simpler and smoother flush deck, which prow was just as high. In addition, the hull was 186.2 m (611 ft) by 20 m (66 ft), by 6.15 m (20.2 ft) whereas the Suffren was considerably longer and deeper at 194 m (636.48 ft) by 20 m (65.62 ft) and 7.3 m (23.95 ft) draught. However both classes were a close match in terms of displacement: 10,000 tons (standard) and 13,641 tons (full load) for the Algérie and the same as standard but 12,780 tonnes (fully loaded).

So the Algérie was 860 tons heavier at full load, all of it was armour, in reality even more given the reduced size of the hull. In reality given the steel saved by shorter dimensons adnd more compact machinery, almost one meter saved in draught, which was considerable. So total weight of the armour was closer to 1500 tons, the displacement of a destroyer. wow algérie
WoW's rendition of the Algérie

Propulsion

To move these 13,000 tons fully loaded, Algérie can count on four-shaft Rateau-Bretagne SR (gearing with simple reduction) and Brown Boveri mixed geared turbines fed by six Indret boilers (with Penhoët burners), rated for a total of 84,000 shp (63,000 kW).

This was slightly less than the 3-shaft Rateau-Bretagne SR geared turbines rated for 90,000 shp on the Suffren, yet the latter achieved 32 knots (36.82 mph; 59.26 km/h). What was important however, was the fact some room was lost as the four turbines were all roomed independantly, so in case of a water gush, only one was flooded, allowing the ship to escape to safety.

However, Suffren had a range of 4,500 nautical miles while Algérie still maintained a top speed of 31 knots (57 km/h), so only conceiding a knot, but with a range of 8,700 nautical miles (16,110 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h), almost double. This feat was achieved by partly using fuel tanks as an additional protection rather than seawater, and better internal arrangement, as well as the space gained by using slighlty smaller turbines. This range was a welcome addition also for Atlantic operations, the intended role of the new cruiser class.

Armament

The main armament of the ship was four twin turrets housing 203mm/55 Modèle 1931 naval guns. They used the same ammunition as the 203mm/50 Modèle 1924 and were similar except for the longer barrel, hence a better muzzle velocity at 840 metres per second (2,800 ft/s). On Suffren these were the latter, allegedly derived from older ww1-era 240 mm railway guns. These Modele 31 used separate charges and shell and the APC M1936 weighted 134 kilograms (295 lb). The gun breech block was of the same earlier Welin model, with a rate of fire of abot 4-5 RPM. Maximum firing range was 31,000 m (34,000 yd) at 45° elevation.

The secondary battery comprised twelve 100 mm/45 guns in six twin mounts, quite an improvement over the Canon de 90 mm Modèle 1926 used by the Suffren (which in addition carried eight single mounts). That was quite an improvement, still, fire direction was limited as well as the rate of fire. The AA battery comprised eight 37 mm (1.5 in) AA guns in four twin mounts. The already old Canon de 37 mm Modèle 1925 was a standard, used on most French cruisers and battleships.

Semi-Automatic (hand-fed with cartridge boxes), it can elevation -15° to +80° and had a 15-21 rpm, the lowest of all contemporary AA guns. By comparison the Italian Breda was 60-120 rpm and the German 3.7 cm Flak 18/36/37/43, 150 rpm, the Bofors 115-120 rpm. Its muzzle velocity was only 810 m/s (2,700 ft/s) and range 5.4 km (3.4 mi) at +45° up to 7 km (4.3 mi) at +45°. From 1941, the ship had sixteen 37 mm in twin mounts.

Algérie was also given sixteen 13.2 mm (0.52 in) AA heavy MGs in quadruple mounts and from 1941, this was bring to thirty-six 13.2 mm HMGs. Also for close-quarter she was fitted with six 550 mm torpedo tubes in two triple banks on the sides.

The 13.2 mm model was the old Hotchkiss M1929 machine gun, air-cooled, which had a 450 rounds/min cycle, a muzzle velocity of 800 m/s (2,625 ft/s) and was fed by 30-round box magazines.

This model was also used by the Japanese and Spanish Navies, and was tried by Italy as well. But overall this AA cover had many gaping holes, between a slow 100 mm and 37 mm, and the very close-quarter 13.2 mm, which lacked punch and range.

These mounts were all replaced on French ships of the FNFL which went through an American refit, using the standard 20 mm Orelikons and 40 mm Bofors instead. For reconnaissance she also had three Loire-Nieuport 130 seaplanes, 1 catapult which were removed in 1941 while she later gained a radar.



The main tower was quite high and contained all the necessary detection and direction organs of the ship. The main telepointing turret or upper platform on top of the tower carried the telescoping turret for the main artillery, with a 5-meter rangefinder and two smaller telepointing turrets for AA artilley, each with a 3m rangefinder. With staff and all equipment, the main turret alone weighed 10.5 tons and the secondary turrets 5.5 tons.

Below, The Admiral's Control bridge was originally called the "Headlamp Control Platform" but developed to house the admiral and had a serie of squared windows and doors to access the platform. This level comprises the navigation shelter, reduced transmission and operations PC and two gyroscopic compass repeaters/taximeters.

The remote control station of the rear axial projector as well as the lookout stations were replaced on the intermediate gateway and the signaling projectors installed on the intermediate bridge, placed in front of the Admiral's platform. The main bridge was below, in two stage behind the 'Y' turret.

The upper bridge, above the main turret, The lower bridge, housed the captain's bridge with all the usual ship command organs and a map room and communication room behind. It was crossed by the main blockhaus with a repeat of all essential command features. The lower, or intermediate bridge, included the Admiral navigation shelter under the commander's naval shelter, still with an unobstructed view of the bow and housed the central operations, transmissions and cipher office. On the CT's back was installed the telegraphic station and a large maps room for the admiral watchmen restroom.

Protection

By far, the best aspect of the ship was its armour, comprising a main belt 120 mm (4.7 in) strong, transverse bulkheads 70 mm (2.8 in) thick, longitudinal bulkheads 40 mm (1.6 in) thick.

The subdivision was provided by sixteen main transverse bulkheads rising from the bottom to the upper deck. These transverse partitions closed completetly any circulation from the bottom to the main deck (machines roof and boiler rooms).

Their main deck was 80 mm (3in-1in) and below in the interdeck bulkheads were pierced with watertight doors. They contributed to the sturdiness of the ship, since their amounts connect the elongated and coamings of the upper decks with reinforcement bars.

The turrets faces were 95 mm (3.7 in), and 70 mm (2.8 in) on the sides and roofs. The conning tower had a 70 mm top and 95 mm walls (2.8 to 3.7 in). There was also an internal torpedo bulkhead, about 30 mm thick, and great compartimentation which acted as additional safe cells.

Compared to that, the previous Suffren were made in paper, with a belt 50 mm (2.0 in) to 54 mm (2.1 in) up to 60 mm (2.4 in) thick depending on the ships, a main armoured deck 25 mm (0.98 in) thicks, and the turrets and conning tower protected by 30 mm (1.2 in). Your authentic "tin-clad cruiser".

About the new St Louis class (1938)

World of Warships
World of Warships what-if rendition of the St Louis

Algérie inspired the construction of new heavy cruisers to be launched when the limitations of the Washington Treaty would have expired. In effect, these were to reach 14 to 15,000 tons standard (up to 20,000 tons fully loaded), or 5000 more than the limit. Other navies were beginning to study such cruisers, including the United States Navy.

The St. Louis were therefore very close to the Baltimore design, with a same arrangement of three triple turrets. The larger dimensions were intended to improve active protection (AA) and passive protection (more armour and compartimentation) while the larger hull allowed to double to power at about 130,000 hp, regaining two knots.

They were scheduled to replace in 1943 the Duguay-Trouin class (1923) and were approved on April 1, 1940. However due to wartime urgency, their construction was never ordered. Their AA has a well-cleared arc of fire since the St Louis class were to use the same "mack" or "mast-stack", characteristic of the Richelieu, for the benefit of additional deck and aerial space.

The guns would have been either of the same model as Algérie or an improved model with a longer barrel and reworked breech block for improved rpm. However, the AA battery was pretty much the same as Algérie, and two planes were carried, no radar at that point.

Her details were as followed:
Displacement: 14,470 t. standard -17,620 t. at full charge
Dimensions: 202 m long, 20 m wide, 5.80 m draft.
Powerplant: 4 shafts Parsons turbines, 6 Indret boilers, 130,000 hp.
Top speed: 34 knots
Amour: Up to 210 mm turrets and CT, 90 mm decks, battery, 60-70 mm internals.
Armament: 9 x 203 mm (3 × 3) - New 1940 model, 8 x 100 mm (4 × 2), 8 x 37 mm (4 × 2), 16 x 13.2 mm AA HMGs (4 x 4), 3 aircraft
Crew: 760

St Louis
Rendition of the St Louis class cruisers by the author.

The Algérie in action

Algérie and crew at Bregançon
Algérie and crew posing in 1941 at Fort de Brégançon, Les Salins d'Hyères, French riviera. src. MP CHURET - Chef mécanicien (cc)

Algérie was laid down in 1931 at Brest NyD (Britanny, Atlantic coast) on 19 March 1931, she was launched on 21 May 1932 and commissioned on 15 September 1934, operational after trials that month. Her name was in relation to the centennary of the former colony, then a department (so officially part of mainland France), fastuously celebrated with a large naval review in front of Algiers, May 1930.

She started after her first sea legs, on 23 août 1933, and the end of preliminary trials on 22 december 1933. Her official tests started in January 1934 by endurance and consumption checks, to test her propulsion system. On 2 February, she made firing tests with her main battery and also reach her top speed ever registered at 33.2 knots with forced heat and a calm sea.

After these satisfactory tests, Algérie joined Brest for after testing work and refits. She layed in drydock Lannion until June 9, 1934 and was definitely commissioned on June 15, 1934 and the definitive armament was tested and provided on September 5, 1934. She left Brest in October for Toulon, with the long range crossing as the last test, making a stopover en route at Casablanca (October 11). Her final admission to active service was on October 19.

From November, she was attached to the 3rd light division also counting Duquesne, Tourville, Colbert Foch and Dupleix. She spent the next years in fleet exercizes, showing excellent characteristics. However no sister-ship was ever ordered as the global tonnage limit for cruisers defined at Washington was reached. Despite her qualities, Algérie was never really put to the test, the only time she fired was on coastal installations.

Dakar and South Atlantic (1939)
Assigned to the first cruisers squadron (in the company of Foch, Tourville, Duquesne, Colbert and Dupleix), she was detached from Toulon to hunt for the Graf Spee in the South Atlantic. For this reason, she joined Dakar, French West Africa, where she was based, and operated with Strasbourg and the British aicraft carrier Hermes, but never spotted the German raider. She was back in the Atlantic.

North Atlantic (1940)
In March 1940, she escorted the battleship Bretagne carrying French gold reserves (3000 tons) to safety in Canada.

Mediterranean (1940-41)
After the Italian declaration of war, Algérie was sent to the Mediterranean. She reached Toulon, and was prepared for her first mission to shell facilities and installatons at the port of Genoa.
This episode has been seen in detail through Operation Vado 13-14 June 1940. She was part of the French 3rd Squadron (four heavy cruisers and 11 destroyers) which raided the Italian coast.

Algérie was part of the northern group, comprising Foch and the destroyers Aigle, Cassard, Chevalier Paul, Lion, Tartu and Vauban, heading for Vado and Savona, by night at 25 knots. She had there, a fair share of shelling starting before dawn, 16,000 yards (15,000 metres).

Algérie indeed set ablaze several storage tanks in Vado Ligure, not the cleverest decision however as due to the anemic wind, the thick black smoke soon obscured the other objectives and fire lost precision. Later, MAS539 attacked Algérie at 2,000 yards (1,800 metres) but missed. She made it home unscaved like the rest of the fleet, also attacked by a TB Catalafimi, another MAS and submarines along the way. This was her only significant war action.

Algérie was afterwards on an escort mission when the capitulation came. She was anchored in Mers-El-Kébir but departed to Toulon and was miraculously not present when Operation Catapult began. So she escaped destruction, but later escorted the battle-damaged Provence to Toulon for extensive repairs. In 1941 she was given a better AA battery (16 x 37 mm and 36 x 13.2 mm) and a radar in 1942, or early French design.

Scuttling of Toulon (Nov.1942)
Algerie scuttled
On November, 27, she sank at Toulon, like the rest of the fleet, scuttled to honor the pledge made by admiral Darlan that no French ship would ever be captured by the Germans (German photo, unknwon author)

Demolition charges were set on the ship and while the Germans arrived an tried to persuade the crew to not do so under the Armistice provisions; Algérie's captain requested the Germans to wait until his superior could advise, leaving ample time for the crew to lit the fuses.

Admiral Lacroix ultimately arrived and by then the captain suddenly ordered the ship to be evacuated. The Germans prepared to board, but to avoid slaughter, the captain told their officers that the charges were about to blew up. The Algerie burned for 20 days, but overall was not that badly damaged.

Later that the Axis was now master of the harbor and the fleet, even in this sorry state, salvage operations took place. The intention was to transfer these ships to the Regia Marina after losses of 1941-42.

The Italians raised Algérie in pre-cut sections on 18 March 1943 after much effort, but the capitulation later stopped all progress. What left of the ship was bombed and sunk again on 7 March 1944 by allied aviation. Algérie would be raised and broken up for scrap in 1949 eventually.

author's rendition of algerie
Author's rendition of algerie 1/700

Algérie specifications 1940

Dimensions186,2 m long, 20 m wide, 6,15 m draught (611 x 66 x 20.2 ft)
Displacement10 000 t. standard -13 641 t. Fully loaded
Crew748
Propulsion4 shafts direct geared SR turbines Rateau-Bretagne, 6 Indret boilers, 84 000 hp.
Speed31 knots (57 km/h)
Range8,700 nautical miles (16,110 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h)
Armament8 x 203 mm/55 (Mod. 1931), 12 x 100 mm DP (6x2), 8 x 37 mm AA (4x2), 16 x 13,2 mm AA HMGs (4 x 4), 2 x 3 550 mm TTs, 3 Loire 130 seaplanes.
ArmorBelt 120 mm, AT bulkheads 70 mm, deck 80, turrets 95 mm, CT 95 mm.


Read More/Src Gardiner Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1921-46.
Jean-Michel Roche, Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours.
http://forummarine.forumactif.com/t3803-france-croiseur-lourd-algerie
https://www.secondeguerre.net/articles/navires/fr/cr/na_lourdalgerie.html
Chronology of the war at sea 1939-1945 (3rd ed.) London, Chatham Publishing
https://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=19195
http://www.alabordache.fr/marine/espacemarine/desarme/croiseur/algerie-croiseur/photo.php
Paper model kit on kartonmodellbau.de
3D model on digitalnavy.com
Sketchup Model on 3dwharehouse
Turret Details on shapeways
The old Kombrig model kit

Naval History

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Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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