Kearsage class battleships (1896)

USA (1896-99) USS Kearsage, Kentucky

The tandem turret battleships

The Kearsage class is certainly not the best remembered of USN battleships as they played a minor part in WW1 and were scrapped afterwards, but on the design standpoint, they clearly were out of the box solution to an old problem: How to cram firepower on a limited size, to maximize efficiency of armor and thus, preserving some speed. The Kearsage was one such possible solution, although it clearly demonstrated it was all but practical. The concept was uniquely American - It did not spread in other navies, but was repeated on the Virginia class battleships of 1904.

The singularity of this design was to use "tandem turrets", a system in which a turret was simply fitted upon another. This had of course some advantages but also drawbacks, Conway's rightfully called a "most unfortunate arrangement". Indeed, the ships were armed with as usual a quatuor of 13-in guns (330 mm), and a secondary battery of 8-in guns. The tradition of USN capital ships until then has been the combination of 6-in, 8-in and 13-in guns.

On the Indiana class, the 8-ins were in casemate corners barbettes. On the USS Iowa, in four single broadside turrets. For the Kearsage class, something new was tried, in order to free broadside space for more artillery. The solution of stacking turrets indeed allowed to place fourteen 5-in guns, faster firing than the four previous 6-in on the Indiana or having a much better punch than the USS Iowa's six 4-in guns. An ingenious solution by the Bureau of Ships to squaring circles.

USS Kearsage underway

Design process and development

Before going into the design, context is important: The Navy was struck by the economic depression in 1893. The new Secretary of the Navy Hilary A. Herbert, was not favourable to expensive battleships designs until he was convinced by Alfred Thayer Mahan's Influence of Sea Power upon History like so many politicians of the time and the same year he requested Congress to fund at least one new battleship, which was delayed until 1895.

This left Bureau of Construction and Repair (C&R) time to refine existing designs and debate over the best options. The Kearsage was authorized by the Act of 2 March 1895. The admiralty decided to get rid of the raised forecastle, and tried to find compromises for coal storage, a crucial point at that time for autonomy. Armor protection was reworked and arguably better, notably introducing a revised armor deck which gave more volume to hull. At the same time, it was question to return to the Iowa main caliber of 12-inch (305 mm) guns instead of 13-in.

But the greater improvement was the introduction of a consistent tertiary battery of 5-inch (127 mm) quick-firing gun, which was just being developed, instead of relying only on 8-in guns and much smaller ones. This radically increased firepower. Discussions about the range and arc of fire left some to work on a all-turret design, but it soon proved unrealistic. Instead, classic barbettes were chosen to free space on the deck and armored walls instead. The limits were the increased weight of a turret arrangement and ammunition supply, or fire control. The choice of a central battery amidships pushed the secondary armament of 8-in guns to the ends of the hull, therefore two-story turrets were chosen.

In general, by designing the ship, the engineers staff decided to depart from the low-freeboard Indiana class and high-freeboard USS Iowa, trying to find an in-between with a higher flush deck overall. The design incorporated many other improvements such as quick-firing guns and improved armor protection, apart the two-story turrets.

The design eventually settled on three designs for the secondary artillery:
-"A": Eight guns, two in centerline, superfiring, two wing turrets amidships.
-"B": No forward turret, two wing turrets further forward, one superfiring aft.
-"C": Centerline turrets, no wing mounts
-"D": Reverse of "C", wing mounts only.

In the end, C&R preferred the "A" design, maximizing firepower, but were opposed by the Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd) which wanted to scrap all four designs and requested a new proposal. The two-storey turret in fact was the concept of Joseph Strauss from BuOrd, he proposed this solution to solve issues with the space available. The very unorthodox turret design, with the second turret fixed, atop the first seemed evident in paper, at a time turrets existed already since 40 years, but that solution was never adopted. This led to a fifth version, called "E".

The only limitation, fire-control wise, was the obligation of the second battery to target the very same objectives as the main artillery. The idea was at almost the same range, the 8-in guns fired faster and still could engage the superstructures instead of the hull for example due to a still possible different elevation. It was thought that at closer ranges, the faster 8-in could take over whole 12-in guns were reloading, independently of turret rotation.

Supply problems such as the elevator for ammunitions were relegated to technicalities to be solved by engineers after the design was approved. However it was done in the context for much better, lighter turret designs with weight savings. So much so that the twin-storey arrangement was actually thought to be lighter than the two-gun turrets used on USS Iowa.

BuOrd also strongly milited to the return of 13-in guns instead of 12-in as 30% more powerful. The 8-in guns still compensated for the slighty slower 13-in as well. The other argument was that tests performed with 15 in (381 mm) armor plates showed they could be penetrated by 13-in shells.
In the end, the Navy preferred BuOrd "E" design with the 13-in guns.

The design was later criticized long after the ships were in service because of poorly-designed turrets (which engineers thought to improve on the Virginia class) and "wet" lower battery. But the worst point was about the development of quick-firing 12-in guns; They rendered the whole concept a failure as the new main guns fired nearly as quickly as the 8-inches. In both case, the main guns below not be fired without severe concussion effects for the crew of mounts structural fatigue.

Design of the Kearsage class

The two new battleships on blueprints, as authorised under the Act of 2.3.1895, were longer than the Iowa, with 368 feet (112 m) in lenght (waterline), 375 ft 4 in (114.4 m) overall. Their beam was 72 ft 3 in (22.02 m) and draught 23 ft 6 in (7.16 m). Displacement reached 11,540 long tons standard, 12,850 long tons (13,060 t) fully loaded in battle order. They shared the low freeboard of the Indian class, 14 ft 6 in (4.42 m) forward under normal conditions, but soon the entire section was underwater in heavy weather. Also a common feature of the time, a prominent ram bow was featured.


The machinery room contained two 3-cylinder vertical triple-expansion steam engines. They drove each a single shaft, ended by a single screw propeller. The steam engines were fed by five coal-fired Scotch marine boilers. Exhausts were truncated and went through two funnels. These engines produced a total of 10,000 indicated horsepower (7,500 kW). Top speed as a result was 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph).

However on sea trials, both horsepower and speed exceeded these figures. USS Kearsarge showed 11,674 indicated horsepower for 16.8 knots, and USS Kentucky did better, at 12,179 horsepower for 16.9 knots. For range, coal storage was made better than previous designs at 410 long tons (420 t) in peacetime and up 1,591 long tons (1,617 t) fully load in wartime. The cruising speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) allowed them a 5,070 nautical miles (9,390 km; 5,830 mi) radius of operations. These were the first US battleships to make extensive use of electrical auxiliary machinery, with a total output for dynamos being 350 kilowatts.

The Kearsage class was steered by a single rudder and at 12 knots they needed 475 yards (434 m) to make a full turn to port, 455 yards to starboard. Kearsarge's crew comprised 38 officers and 548 enlisted men, 549 on the Kentucky, but in WW1 it was down to 40 officers and 513 enlisted men.


Outside the low freeboard, side battery, two funnels, arm bow, the Kearsage and Kentucky appearance was also marked by two heavy military masts, carrying anti-torpedo boats light guns, and spotting tops.

Main & secondary guns: The 2-story turrets

The core of the design, dictated by room and the adoption of a new armament, forced the creation of these 'double deck' turrets with one stage housing two 13-inch (330 mm)/35 caliber guns, and on the upper turret, welded on the roof, two 8 in (203 mm)/35 caliber guns. Guns and turret armor were designed by BuOrd. But the cheese box turret was designed by C&R. They had the vertical walls of the first generation turrets and ports were very large for sufficient elevation. William Sims participated in the design and criticized this choice as he noted that the turrets floors were accessible through the ports.

A lucky hit could claim both turrets in one go. But worst so, on trials, the Kerasage and Kentucky were reputed very bad gun platforms. Not only the blast concussion was a problem for the gunners above, but when both turrets fired, heat conduction made temperatures in the upper turret soar up, whereas when the weather was rough, the top turret was leaning even more than the lower one, complicating fire direction.

Main battery - 13-in guns: They were Mark II type models, mounted in Mark III turrets, electrically driven. Brown powder propellant charges were used. They weighed 500 lb (230 kg), and therefore were difficult to handle and slow the rate of fire. But they were later replaced by 180 lb (82 kg) smokeless charges. Muzzle velocity was 2,000 ft/s (610 m/s), enough to penetrate 25 in (640 mm) of regular steel at optimal range, closer at 2,500 yd (2,300 m) in direct fire, 20 in (510 mm) of steel could be penetrated.

Turret elevation was −5 degrees up to 15 degrees, making possible a maximal range of 12,100 yd (11,100 m) well in excess of gunnery direction. Fire was inaccurate at best. BuOrd recommended 8,000 yd (7,300 m) instead to have any chance of scoring a hit either than by sheer luck. As shown on trials, this too was rather optimistic. Rate of fire was one shot every 320 seconds (5 minutes) with the obligation to down the guns at 2° elevation to reload them. Of course in these conditions, the faster 8-in guns were a blessing, although after the smokeless charges adoption, this dropped significantly.

Secondary battery - 8-inch guns: These were Mark IV artillery pieces mounted on fixed Mark IX turrets. The guns possessed a muzzle velocity of 2,080 ft/s (630 m/s). Brown-powder charges were later replaced by lighter smokeless charges, in the same early 1900s refit. Rate of fire was originally one rpm, and jumped to one every 40 sec, but reloading must be done horizontally. The arrangement adopted for the higher rate of fire of the 8-inch guns but both the smokeless propellant adoption and rapid fire modification made this obsolete in the early 1900s.

Tertiary Battery - 5-in guns: A battery of fourteen 5 in/40 cal. artillery pieces were mounted in casemates in the upper deck. Seven per side, fourteen in all. To see the characteristics of these famous guns, brand new when the ship were built, see the armament section of WW1 USN battleships. Due to the low freeboard, this battery appeared in service to have been placed way too close to the waterline. As a result in heavy weather, casemates were washed out, and fire was difficult to say the least, having to fire through waves and splashes of seawater, which also penetrated the battery.

Light battery - torpedo boats defence: Twenty 6-pounder (57 mm or 2.2 in) Hotchkiss guns, eight 1-pounder (37 mm or 1.5 in) guns were carried on board. All in individual open mounts, on elevated position on decks and fighting tops. However eight 57 mm guns were in a broadside battery, below the 5-inch guns, four each side plus four more in bow and stern casemates. Needless to say, all were useless in heavy weather. For close quarters but mostly to be mounted in boats for landing parties, two M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun 6 mm (0.24 in) Lee Navy models were also carried.

Torpedo Tubes: In typical fashion of the time, four 18 in (457 mm) torpedo tubes were carried, placed in fixed mounts in the broadside, above the waterline. Two abreast of the forward main battery turret, two either side of the aft superstructure. Six torpedoes were carried as reloads. They were of the Mark II Whitehead, 140-pound (64 kg) warhead model, which covered 800 yards (730 m) at 27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph). There was just one setting.

Armor protection

These flush deck ships had a freeboard of 14ft 6in forward at legend draught, with a thick belt extending from 3ft 6in above to 4ft below the waterline and from the centre line of the after barbette to the forward end of the boiler rooms, it was 16½in at the top, tapering to 13¼-in at waterline level and 9½in at the lower edge. It was gradually reduced to 10½in maximum at the centre line of the fore barbette, and in the next 30ft to a uniform 4in. The important factor was the decreased belt, whereas were was no side protection above, but the deck was more significantly strengthened, 5 in thick.

The bulkheads were 10in fore and 12in aft and the upper belt 5in. The armour deck was 24in on the flat, at the top of the heavy belt and curved down at the ends, being locally increased to 3in forward and Sin aft. Training was electric, with 13in turret crowns 3½in thick while the 8in ones were 2in thick. The 5in Kearsage mounts on the upper deck battery had 6in armour plating. The conning tower had 10 in thick walls, 2-inch-thick (51 mm) roof. The 5-in casemate battery however lacked splinter screens between each gun, making it vulnerable to hits in these gaps. This was quite a shortcoming.

launch of USS Kearsage

Launch of USS Kearsage, BB-5, launched in Newport News, March 1898, named after the famous 1861 sloop named for Mount Kearsarge (Merrimack County, New Hampshire) celebrated for defeating CSS Alabama in duel. A modern LHD is named after her also, and the name was to be freed for CV3 (later USS Hornet).


Rapid-firing for main guns was introduced in the USN by 1903. USS Kearsarge and Kentucky received automated shutters in the ammunition hoists to prevent explosions in the magazines and later electrical wiring was protected or removed entirely. This happened after after a propellant charge accidentally detonated because of an electrical short in USS Kentucky in April 1906. Bulkheads between guns in each turret were also added, gas evacuators in breeches to expel propellant gasses also.

In 1909-1911, the 57 mm guns were removed, but four additional 5-inch guns installed. The heavy military masts were replaced by the new lattice models. The torpedo tubes were removed. The boilers wee replaced by eight Mosher models. The last refit happened in 1919: All but eight of 5-inch guns were removed, recycled onboard auxiliary merchant ships to fight German U-boat in the Atlantic. Two 3 in (76 mm) AA guns were added, and at last, splinter bulkheads inside the 5-inch battery as a protection.

The USS Kearsage (BB-5) in service

North Atlantic Squadron's head
USS Kearsage started as flagship of the North Atlantic Squadron, and operated down to the Caribbean Sea. By May 1901 Captain Bowman H. McCalla took command of the battleship, followed by Captain Joseph Newton Hemphill in 1902, as the ship became flagship of the European Squadron. Departed from Sandy Hook in June she reached Kiel, as host to an official state visit by Emperor Wilhelm II and the Prince of Wales in July when back visiting the UK.

Mediterranean and the Caribbean
The battleship was later based in Bar Harbor, Maine, still as flagship and in December sailed Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, to assume control of the Guantanamo Naval Reservation. By March 1904, Captain Raymond P. Rodgers took command and after exercises in the Caribbean Sea she crossed the Atlantic to Lisbon for a state visit where she hosted King Carlos I of Portugal in June. She later reached the Mediterranean and headed east to Greece, where she assisted to the Independence Day celebrations in Phaleron Bay, hosting King George I of Greece, Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg. She went back west, halting at Corfu, Trieste, and Fiume and back to Newport, Rhode Island in August. USS Maine later replaced Kearsarge as flagship of the North Atlantic Fleet. In December 1904, Captain Herbert Winslow was in command and in April 1906, she was victim of a grave accident off Cuba when a gunpowder charge for 13-inch guns ignited after a short, killing two officers and eight men. This led to drastic safety measures to be taken during a subsequent refit.

USS Kearsage with the great white fleet
USS Kearsage with the great white fleet

The Great White Fleet
After joining the fourth Division, Second Squadron under command of Captain Hamilton Hutchins, she departed in December 1907 with the Great White Fleet. She halted at Trinidad and Rio de Janeiro, joined the west coast of South America (Punta Arenas, Valparaíso, Callao, Magdalena Bay) and halted in May 1908 to San Francisco. Later she departed for Hawaii and joined Auckland, and Sydney in Australia, and Melbourne.

A third journey took place from Albany, Western Australia, bound to the Philippine Islands, Japan, China, and Ceylon, back to the Suez Canal, Port Said, Malta, Algiers, Gibraltar and back to Hampton Roads on 22 February. She hosted U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt at her return in celebration. The great white fleet had achieved its advertising and training cruise around the globe. Until 1914, so for the remainder five years, she spent her service between the Atlantic, Caribbean and Pacific without notable event. USS Kearsarge was modernized and therefore decommissioned for this, placed in drydock at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard on 4 September 1909. This great rebuilt was completed in 1911 for US$675,000.

USS Kearsage after refit in 1916
USS Kearsage after refit in 1916

The great War
From her return from the dockyard in 1911 until August 1914, USS Kearsage was in reserve. She was recommissioned on 23 June 1915, to patrol the Western Atlantic coast. She later landed US Marines at Veracruz in September 1915 and stayed there until January January 1916 bringing back Marines to New Orleans. She was in the Atlantic Reserve Fleet, Philadelphia, training naval militia and Armed Guard crews, naval engineers in the Atlantic after the US entered the war. In August 1918 shee rescued survivors of the Norwegian barque Nordhav, sunk by U-117. The rest of the war ended without noticeable event. She was decommissioned in May 1920 after training in 1919 United States Naval Academy midshipmen in the Caribbean.

The interwar
This summer it was decided to convert her as a crane ship, later denominated IX-16 on 17 July 1920 and AB-1 on 5 August. This was a radical rebuilt. Kearsarge was converted into a crane ship, with all her armament and former superstructures, plus the armor removed in accordance to the Washington Treaty tonnage limitations. She was fitted with a large revolving crane with a lifting capacity of 250 tons (230 tonnes) plus 10-foot (3.0 m) blisters to improved stability during operations. She sarted a new career spanning the whole interwar. She was found useful in many occasion, for example in 1939 when she raised the submarine USS Squalus from the bottom.

USS Kearsarge in 1920, just before conversion. She was converted to a crane ship in 1920, stability being increased by bulges and a very large 250t revolving crane fitted. She was renamed Crane Ship No 1 in by November 1941.

Word War Two
Amazingly, USS Kearsage/AB-1 was still active when Pear Harbor happened in December 1941. On 6 November she just has been renamed again Crane Ship No. 1, to free her name for the future CV-33. She served of heavy lifter for guns, turrets, and apparatus for the battleships and cruisers USS Indiana, Alabama, Savannah, Chicago, and Pennsylvania.

In 1945 she was transferred to the San Francisco Naval Shipyard to assist in the fitting out of USS Hornet (ii) and USS Boxer, and rebuilt of USS Saratoga. Later she assisted the reconstruction of YD-171 on Terminal Island and three years after in 1948, she left the West Coast, at the Boston Naval Shipyard. By June 1955 at last she struck from the Register, and sold for scrap in August.

USS Kentucky (BB-6) career

BB-6 first captain after commission was Captain Colby Mitchell Chester. She has been fitted out at the New York Navy Yard and her first mission was to replace USS Newark in the Eastern squadron during the Boxer rebellion, under Rear Admiral Louis Kempff. Next, until 1904 she toured many Asian ports such as Chefoo, Wusong, Nanking, Taku Forts, Hong Kong, Xiamen, Nagasaki, Kobe, and Yokohama. She was the flagship of Rear Admiral Frank Wildes and later Robley D. Evans. In 1904 she departed Manila for NyC, going through the Suez canal, halting at Alexandria and Gibraltar on her way.

A painting of USS Kentucky at Newport News
A painting of USS Kentucky at Newport News

She became part of the British North Atlantic Squadron at Annapolis in 1905 for exercises and alternated manoeuvres between there and Cuban waters. She landed Marines during the 1906 Cuban Insurrection. She attended the Jamestown Exposition at Norfolk, Virginia, in April 1907 and took part later in the Great White fleet, touring the same cities as her sister-ship BB-5 in her three cruises (see above). This took over her career until 1909.

Like USS Kentucky she was modernized in August 1909, decommissioned at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard and emerged from the drydock in 1911, with notably new cage masts and water-tube boilers, and a revised armament. Due to her age she was placed in the Second Reserve, and in 1913 was placed with the transferred to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet, Philadelphia.

She was recommissioned on 23 June 1915 to carry Marines to Veracruz, and remained there until 2 June 1916, making just a hop at New Orleans for the traditional Mardi Gras celebrations and rest the crew. She stopped on her way back at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base and Santo Domingo and later trained naval militias from the Maine before heading to NY naval shipyard for another refit on 2 January 1917.

When the war broke up, she resumed training of new recruits from Yorktown, Virginia, and trained several thousand men, 15 groups of recruits in all until the end of the war. She was overhauled at the Boston NyD from 20 December 1918, and from March 1919, departed for new exercises and training, this time for the US Naval Academy midshipmen. After the Washington treaty was signed she was either to be disarmed, demilitarized and converted for other uses as her sister, or broken up. The latter option was chosen and she was written off 27 May 1922, sold and BU in March 1923.

USS Kentucky in Sidney with the great white fleet, 1906
USS Kentucky in Sydney with the great white fleet, 1906

Author's illustration of the Kearsage in 1917


Dimensions114.4 x 22 x 7.16 m (375 x 72 x 23 ft)
Displacement11,540 long tons standard, 12,850 long tons FL
Propulsion2 shafts TE steam engines, 5 scotch boilers 10,000 hp
Speed16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph)
Range5,070nm (9,390 km; 5,830 mi) at 10 knots
Armament4 × 13 in/35, 4 × 8 in/35, 14 × 5 in/40, 20 × 6-Pdr, 8 × 1-pdr, 4 × 18 in TTs.
Armour (max. figures)Belt 16.5 in, Turrets 17 in/11 in, CT 10 in, Deck 5 in.

Sources/Read More

Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
Friedman, Norman (1985). U.S. Battleships: An Illustrated Design History.
Gardiner, Robert, ed. (1979). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1860–1905
Reilly, John C. & Scheina, Robert L. (1980). American Battleships 1886–1923
Albertson, Mark (2007). They'll Have to Follow You!: The Triumph of the Great White Fleet.
Bauer, Karl Jack & Roberts, Stephen S. USN Register 1775–1990: Major Combatants
"Crane Ship No. 1 (AB 1)". Naval Vessel Register.
Evans, Mark L.; Marcello, Paul J. "Kearsarge II (Battleship No. 5): 1896–1955
Breyer, Siegfried (1973). Battleships and Battle Cruisers 1905–1970. Doubleday and Company
Hore, Peter (2006). Battleships of World War I. London: Southwater Books
US Navy, Naval History and Heritage Command (11 May 2009) USN BBs.
Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Seaforth Publishing
Conway's all the world fighting ships 1860-1905 and 1906-1921.

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❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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