Flower class Sloops (1915)

Royal Navy (1915-1919) - 134 ships

The first "flowers"

The WW2 'Flower' class is famous from being basically a whaler adapted to ASW and delivered by myriads of small yards in the British isles and commonwealth, Canada in particular. Despite their slow speed and small size, they did their job well against the onslaught of U-Boats in the Atlantic. However there was another "Flower" class. Those of the first battle of the Atlantic. That of the great war. The name came because of ...shortage of ideas after battleships, cruisers and destroyers bleed the list dry. In WW2 in addition to flowers, rivers, woods, lochs, mountains, insects, birds, even dances, were used. Perhaps because of a well-known British passion for gardens, for this class the name stuck, and crossed two generations, despite its decidedly un-warlike qualities. But if the purpose was the same, hunting down U-Boats, while being be built in civilian shipyards. Here is the story of the original "Flower class" and the other sloops of the Royal Navy during WW1, most of these variations on the theme of the "Q-Ship".


Still 'sloops' but out the Flower class

Sloops before and during WWI

Sloops of the XIXth century.

USS Portsmouth, a large sloop-of-war in 1896.

The industrial age saw the traditional warship order gradually shift in types, with some disappearing, other appearing, and most evolving in between. The "sloop" is an ancient term straight from the XVIIth century Netherlands. This was originally the Dutch single-mast Sloep. Fast, nimble and agile it had a simple headsail and mainsail in bermuda configuration, of a Gaff-rigged one with a gaff topsail in the XIXth. Some became even more complex in their rigging while still keeping their single mast, such as the square-rigged sloop. Some already were armed, and kept their excellent speed. They were fit for corsairs and smugglers alike.

As steam started to seep in the XIXth century, a fringe below the frigate level saw an intermediate type, much faster and better armed than a gunboat, but less than a corvette. In the Royal Navy it was called the sloop-of-war. The French, Dutch and German navies called them "aviso", because they were used as messenger ships, carrying "avis" or notes to officers in a battle line. They could be either large vessels called the Ship sloop, three masted, or the smaller Brig sloops, both born in the 1770s and converted gradually to steam one century afterwards. However in the 1860s the "ships-sloops" grew larger in size, reaching a step above the corvette (generally two masted) and the frigate.

Like them, three-masted with a full artillery deck and one or two carronades on traversing mounts. Steam generated steam frigates, steam corvettes and steam sloops, all with a number of cannons making them unrated vessels. As ships of the line gradually disappeared, the single artillery deck became the norm, causing the abolition of the traditional rating system and soon after, the sloops, corvettes and frigate denominations. Instead, with the advent of the torpedo, typology now relied on the specialist type: Torpedo Boat, Destroyer, Gunboat, Cruiser or Battleship. In the 1860-70s, the Royal Navy accepted into service a wide range of "screw sloops", li,e the Cameleon class (1860), Rosario and Amazon class (wooden hull), and the Fantome, Osprey, Doterel, Dolphin, Mariner, Nymphe, Beagle, Alert, Phoenix, Condor and Camus, all composite sloops. They all became "gunboats" in the new classification. They could be seen more in detail in the British WWI gunboats article.

However as WW1 broke out, the "naval dust" that could have played a role down the ladder did not existed anymore. Torpedo boats were not fit for long patrols and especially hunting down submarines, and as the threat became obvious from 1915, measures were taken already to devise specialized ships that fit no previous category. They were given back these old forgotten denomination of sloops and frigates. These new vessels created their own category. They were not gunboats, as the latter were meant for stations (mostly colonial). They were not intended for fleet deployments, but escort. The escort system was indeed revived, but destroyers could not be sent defending these: They were needed in the fleet, having their well defined roles at the sides of larger vessels, and running at the same fast speed.

The new escort vessels however, were not to be armed with torpedoes as they were not intended to prey on fast warships, nor had powerful and oil-hungry turbines to achieve the best speeds: They were intended to run long distances at half that speed, just slightly better than the best average trade ship in the convoy.

Birth of the British Anti Submarine Warfare

Changes in policy for the U-Boat campaign

HMS Pathfinder sunk by an U-boat in 1914
HMS Pathfinder sunk by an U-boat in 1914

Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) is indeed born with WW1. Before this, the type rarely had been used in such a scale and area, neither with such decisive goal. While the Hochseeflotte was maintained largely in a state of dissuaded inactivity after Jutland, the Kaiser decided to step-up the effort with submarines deployed as a way to hunt down enemy vessels, and later counter-blockade measure, it gradually became an all-out offensive one. The blockader (The Royal Navy) was becoming the blockaded. What restrained until then their efficiency was the complicated set of rules (called "cruiser rules") for commerce raiding and war prizes, signed by Germany before the war: The U-Boat captain was to inspect the ship, surfaced, first, then if at least part the cargo was indeed destined to a belligerent, either sunk it after ensuring the safety of the crew, or just seized, and brought under escort either in a neutral port or if possible, that of Germany.

Of course in wartime it became near-impossible to apply these, without compromising the submarines first from 1917 when naval aviation and ASW air patrols became much more common. The usual way was to inspect the ship if neutral (and sink it), or sink it outright if belligerent. However incidents started early on: On 26 October, U-24 attacked an unarmed merchant ship without warning, the Belgian troopship Admiral Ganteaume, with many refugees aboard. The ship however survived and arrived in Boulogne. On 30 January 1915, U-20, torpedoed on sight Ikaria, Tokomaru and Oriole, and later torpedoed (but missed) the hospital ship Asturias. Eventually on 4 February 1915, the first unrestricted campaign against Allied trade started.

It was suspended famously after SS Lusitania, carrying US citizens, was sunk, on 7 May 1915. In early 1916, the Hochseeflotte asked support of the U-Boat fleet again, in order to reduce the Royal Navy's strength to better balance chances of an all-out naval battle. The classic scenario was to lure and draw British ships (with battlecruisers at first) on prepared "ambushing" positions with a curtain of U-Boats and minefields. Several attempts were made, the most famous ones being at Jutland. But that plan never really worked and U-Boats were sent to patrol and fire on targets of opportunity. Encounters were by chance and success, expectedly low.

So after October 1916, the Kaiser confered with the Kaiserliches marine staff and they agreed to resume commerce raiding, with more submarines (which were given industrial priority) and a better organization to spot convoys, just recently organized. In addition, it was to be unrestricted, so even neutral ships could expect to be sank without warning. It was almost assured in early 1917 to bring America into the war, but it was gambled at the time, the war would end in the east, and fresh troops could be bring out to the west in full force and defeat the entente before US troops came in force. The first months were spectacular successes: By February 1917 414,000 GRT, March 500,000, April over 600,000 and May 860,000 GRT when it peaked. However afterwards, British ASW armada and methods started to tell, and soon the US Navy brought its might as well.

U-27, sank in August 1915
U-27, sank in August 1915

British counter-measures

These were at first largely ineffective. The most effective wyay to sink an U-Boote when spotted was simply trying to ram it. Many merchantmen risked the manoeuver and rarely hit the submarine, as in fact it just forced it to submerge. Half of all attacks were foiled this way in 1915, which in response freed many U-boat captain to attack without warning. On 20 March 1915, SS Brussels did this to U-33, but her captain, Charles Fryatt was later executed after the ship was captured by the Germans, in June 1916, to international outcry. If a merchant vessel was armed in any way, this also freed the U-Boat captain for any bound to peacetime convention.

In 1915 however, the British tried to revive an old tactic already use in the XVI to XIXth centuries, disguise. The trick was to arm and man a merchant vessel with hidden guns and let the enemy submarine surface and close for inspection, then unmasking and opening fire at point blank range. This became the "Q-ship" tactic (Q for decoy). In 1915, three U-boats were sunk that way, and two trawlers hiding a following submersible. In June, U-40 was sunk by HMS C24 that way, when closing to inspect SS Taranaki. In July, U-23 was sunk by C-27 shadowing SS Princess Louise. Also in July, U-36 was sunk by the Q-ship Prince Charles, as were U-27 and U-41.

Q-Ship HMS Tamarisk
Q-Ship HMS Tamarisk

Since, detection and attack of submerged U-boats was impossible. There was at least a trawler that tried to damage an u-boat periscopes with hammers when passing by, or dropping guncotton bombs, use nets ensnare them. The admiralty even tried to equip the destroyer HMS Starfish with a spar torpedo. But at the end of the first phase (1915), on 15 U-Boats has been sunk in various ways. In return they managed to sank 370 ships (750,000 GRT).

HMS Swansea Castle, and emergency construction program ASW trawler in 1918.

The "Flower" class sloops

The Royal Navy looked at a way in early 1915 already to muster its presence of ships while sparing unused yards and materials if possible. Way after that, in late 1917, the convoy system was re-implemented, and these sloops became specialized escort ships.
With a typical British humor they were popularly called the "herbaceous borders", a reference to the last century popular adage about the Royal Navy being "Britain's best bulwarks are her wooden walls", very much in the spirit of the Athenian prophecy before Salamis. The garden border was also very popular in the UK, seeping through movies like the Monthy Python's Holy grail.

HMS Bryony in 1917 HMS Bryony in 1917

The Flower class were defined by the Emergency War Programme in 1914 already. Since British naval yards were all full, between repair, drydock maintenance and new constructions, the sloops were designed to be built in merchant shipyards instead. The initial three groups were purpose-built "fleet minesweepers", with triple hulls and reinforced bow, giving extra protection, both when ramming and from mine damage. After 1916, their role as minesweepers was relegated after ASW escort. They all were tasked of convoy escort duty refitted with depth charges and 4.7-inch rapid fire naval guns. The first group of fleet minesweepers comprised the Acacia-class (1915), 24 vessels in two batches, with two losses during the war. The second group called Azalea-class (12 vessels) the same year were slightly modified and two were sunk in action. The last group called Arabis-class comprised 36 modified vessels in 1915-16, taking many early service lessons into account. Eight more were built for the French Navy. Five were sank in action (and one French). Interestingly, all were not lost in the north sea and channel: A further two ships, HMS Gentian and Myrtle were lost to mines in the Baltic Sea, on 16 July 1919, while supporting "White" Russians. This in total made for ten losses.

The second serie was modified as Submarine decoys (warship-Qs). They were purely designed for ASW warfare, with hidden guns and a "merchant marine" appearance to lure out unsuspecting u-Boats. These "warship-Qs" were the first specifically designed as ASW vessels, had great hopes planes on them to win the Battle of the Atlantic. They comprised two classes: The Aubretia-class, 12 built in 1916 (two sunk) and the Anchusa-class, 28 vessels built in 1917, six sunk. Some served as patrol vessels i colonial stations during the interwar but nearly all had been disposed before 1939. Their names were retaken for the new, and better known Flower-class corvettes. Two Anchusa class ships, HMS Chrysanthemum and President (ex-Saxifrage, renamed in 1922) were anchored on the River Thames, as drill ships until 1988, so seventy years of loyal service, quite a record. HMS Chrysanthemum was eventually scrapped in 1995 but President was preserved and can be visited as a WWI relic with HMS Caroline in Belfast, and the monitor HMS M33 in Portsmouth. Other were in service in WW2, see the details below.

Acacia class Fleet sweeping Sloops (1915)

hms acacia
Swan Hunter: Acacia, Anemone
Earle: Aster
Scott: Bluebell, Daffodil, Magnolia
Barclay Curle: Dahlia, Daphne, Foxglove, Hollyhock, Lily, Mallow
Lobnitz: Honeysuckle, Iris
Connell: Jonquil, Laburnum
Napier & Miller: Larkspur
McMillan: Marigold, Mimosa, Primrose
Henderson: Sunflower
Dunlop Brenner: Veronica

In addition to their minesweeping role, these ships were designed by the admiralty as auxiliaries for general service, towing and transport of troops and storage. They were based on a DNC design, on Mercantile scantlings which was simple and robust to be built by non-specialist yards. High standardisation helped to achieve a high speed construction rate. So much so, that if most took nearly one year to built, some were completed in little more than four months and a half.

They had a study, reliable 4-cylinder triple expansion engine, while steam came from two cylindrical boilers, but of course top speed was limited to 16 knots. Even if they were designed for 1,400 hp (1,040 kW) or even 1,800 hp (1,340 kW), enough to reach 17 knots (31 km/h), it was realized on trials they needed to overheat their machinery to achieve 2,200 ihp (1,640 kW) for this, and therefore it was limited in practice to far less, enough to achieve 16.5 knots at best. Range was 2,000 nmi (3,700 km) at 15 kn (28 km/h) thanks to a bulk storage of 250 tons of coal.

Like all single-propeller ships they had a large turning circle, and even carried steadying sail to assist in keeping their head to wind. They were unarmoured, except a stray of 8 or 12 mm (.3 to .5 in) over their ammunition magazine, far aft. The box was sturdy enough that it was in one occasion at least blown into the air without detonating after a mine blast.

Later vessels were built with treble-thickness plating around the bow to ramming, and reinforced forecastles and bulkheads forward for the same reason. The first batch of 12 was authorized on 1st January 1915. The second on the 12th. They were delivered between May and September the same year. They were used as minesweepers until 1917 and then turned to convoy escort. Most were sold in the early 1920s to civilian companies, disarmed. Lavender was torpedoed in May 1917, Aster jut a mine in 1917. Foxglove saw WW2 and was sold in 1945 while Jonquil served with the Portuguese Navy and Laburnum became a guardship in Singapore, sunk in February 1942 by IJN aviation.

hms acacia

Technical specifications
-Displacement: 1,200, 1300 t FL
-Dimensions: 76.2 wl, 80 m oa x 10.1 x 3.4 m (262 x 33 x 12 ft)
-Propulsion: 1 shaft TE 4 cyl, 2 cyl. boilers, 1,800 hp. 16 knots
-Armament: 2x 76 mm (12 pdr), 2x 47 mm AA (3 pdr), variable
-Crew: 77-90

Azalea class Fleet sweeping Sloops (1915)

hms azalea
Barclay Curle: Azalea, Begonia
Bow McLachlan: Camellia
Greenock & Grangemouth: Carnation, Clematis
Lobnitz: Heliotorpe, Myrtle
Swan hunter: Jessamine, Zinnia
Napier & Miller: Narcissus
McMillan: Peony, Snowdrop.

This second class was virtually a third batch of the first class, ordered in May 1915 with some modifications: They had a heavier armament, in the likelihood of German raids during their sweeping duties. It was hope to provide them all with 4.7 in guns, but it was in short supply and only part of them had, the others went with the smaller 4-in (102 mm). In other respects they were virtually identical, completed in September-December 1915. HMS Begonia was the first converted Q-ship, at Aulbowline near Queestown in 1916-17. He silhouette was altered to an inocuous coaster and she was recommissioned in August 1917, known as Dolcis, Jessop and Q10. She rammed the U-Kreuzer U-151 off Casablanca, but sank as a result. Myrtle ws sunk in the gulf of Finland in 1919, by a mine. Zinnia went to the Belgian Navy.


Technical specifications
-Displacement: 1,210, 1350 t FL
-Armament: 2x 120 mm (4.7 in), 2x 47 mm AA (3 pdr), variable

Arabis class Fleet sweeping Sloops (1915)

hms wisteria

Earle: Alyssum, Amaryllis
Henderson: Arabis, Asphodel, Berberis
Barclay Curle: Buttercup, Campanula, Celandine, Cornflower
Bow McLachlan: Cyclamen
Greenock & Grangemouth: Delphinium, Genista
Lobnitz: Crocus, Cyclamen
Connell: Gladiolus, Godetia, Hydrangea
Greenock & Grangemouth: Gentian, Geranium
Simons: Lobelia, Lupin
Dunlop Brenner: Marguerite, Mignonette
Bow McLachlan: Myosotis
McMillan: Nasturtium
Hamilton: Nigella, Pansy
Workman Clark: Pentstemon, Petunia
Swan hunter: Primula, Poppy
Richardson Duck: Rosemary
Ropner: Snapdragon
Rennoldson: Valerian
Blyth: Verbena
Irvine: Wallflower, Wisteria

The admiralty wanted a new class with an improved engine and larger dimensions, which, they hope, could reach at least one half knot more. Most improvements came from experience, and when the blueprints were ready, they were ordered in three batches: One of these innovation, ported on the next two batches during construction was the filling of their bow and wing compartment with 50 tons of cork in order to improved floatation in case of flooding. Armament was copied over the previous Azalea, but some were fitted with light 4-in guns. In addition to the 36 ordered by the admiralty and delivered in record time by the 19 yards contracted, eight more were built for the French Navy (see ww1 French escort section).

Most were sold in the 1920s-1930s, but Geranium and Marguerite served with the RAN from 1920 and ended as target in 1937, Asphodel was sold to Denmark, Gladiolus to Portugal, Godetia to Belgium. Earle, Arabis, Genista, Gentian, Mignonette, Nasturtium, Primula, were lost in action during WW1 or in 1919. Valerian was foundered in 1926. Two more served in WW2: Cornflower and Rosemary. The first was used by a commercial company but requisitioned by the RN in 1940 and pressed back into service in Singapore when she was lost in December 1941, bombed by IJN aviation. Rosemary was an escort in the Atlantic and survived until 1947, sold for BU.


Technical specifications
-Displacement: 1,250, 1400 t FL
-Dimensions: 81.7m oa x 10.2 x 3.4 m (268 x 33 ft 6 in x 12 ft)
-Propulsion: 1 shaft TE 4 cyl, 2 cyl. boilers, 2,000 hp. 16 knots
-Armament: 2x 127 mm (4.7 pdr), 2x 47 mm AA (3 pdr), variable
-Crew: 90

Aubrietia class Convoy Sloops (1916)

Aubrietia, Andromeda, Heather, Salvia, Tamarisk, Tulip, Violia, Gaillardia, Hibiscus, Lychnis, Montbretia, Polyanthus
hms polyanthus

The last class was ordered in a first batch of 6, completely modified as "three-island" coasters in the hope to draw closer U-Boat. These the first admiralty Q-ships. The Aubrietia-class later received another batch order, for sloops in total under the Emergency War Programme. They were also referred to as the "cabbage class". At first their design proceeded like the others as fleet sweeping ships with the triple hulls at the bows, armoured above-water magazine aft. But the Aubrietias were re-classified as convoy sloops during construction in 1916. Unlike the preceding ships that were clearly military in appeareance, the Aubrietias were given a tall forecastle for 3/4 of the hull, then a raised poop, and masts with booms fore and aft, including fake hold hatches and a small dummy gun at the bow. They were built and registered to Lloyd's standards, received Q-identifiers and false identities. Since builders were given free hands apart base specifications, accommodations were often unsatisfactory for a warship.

There was a problem though, compared to true Q-ships made from authentic trade vessels: These were still military, with fine lines seen from 3/4 fore or aft, and crew was quite large also if attempting an "abandon ship" routine if an U-Boat came close enough. Andromeda (lead ship of the December 1916, second order) a was sold to French while on stock. Two were torpedoed and one mined during the war. HMS Chrysanthemum and HMS Saxifrage (HMS President from 1922) stayed as training vessels on the Thames until the end of the cold war. A record time for RN ships.

Technical specifications
-Displacement: 1,250, 1400 t FL
-Propulsion: 1 shaft TE 4 cyl, 2 cyl. boilers, 2,500 hp. 17 knots
-Armament: 2x 102 mm (4 in), 1x 47 mm AA (3 pdr)
-Crew: 92

Anchusa class Convoy Sloops (1917)

hms Coreopsis
HMS Coreopsis in 1917 (IWM)

Armstrong Whitworth: Anchusa, Bergamot, Candytuft, Ceanothus (second batch) Arbutus, Auricula, Bryony, Chrysanthemum
Barclay Curle: Convolvulus, Eglantine (second batch) Coreopsis, Cowslip, Dianthus, Gardenia, Gilia, Harebell
William Simons: Spiraea, Silene
Workman, Clark: Syringa (To Egypt as Sollum) Windflower
Blyth Shipbuilding: Ivy
Greenock & Grangemouth: Marjoram, Mistletoe
William Hamilton: Pelargonium
Irvine: Rhododendron
Lobnitz: Saxifrage
Swan Hunter: Sweetbriar, Tuberose

A repeat of the Aubrietia class, also with builder's specific accomodations and ideas. Armstrong itself joined the party and delivered the first of the batch, ordered in January 1917. A second batch was ordered in February, for a total of 28. They were larger, with a displacement reaching 1290 tonnes standard, same speed and powerplant as before. Their main guns were better hidden and for the first time they received depth charges, installed during service. They were dropped through traps under the poop. They also had bomb-throwers usually hidden behind breastworks. All in all they were perhaps the best of the whole serie, but in the meantime, many true merchant men were converted and pressed into service as Q-ships, so this was the last class to be built of this flower class. More specialized ships were built (see below), exploring different ideas.

Anchusa, was sunk by the German submarine U-54 off the west coast of Ireland 16 July 1918, Bergamot by U-84 in the Atlantic 13 August 1917 and Candytuft in 18 November 1917, stranded near Bougie, Algeria. Arbutus by UB-65 in the St. George's Channel 16 December 1917, Cowslip by UB-105 off Cape Spartel 25 April 1918, Rhododendron by U-70 in the North Sea 5 May 1918. Ceanothus became the RIN Elphinstone in May 1922, wrecked on Nicobar Islands 29 January 1925.

HMS Saxifrage in 1918
HMS Saxifrage in 1918


Technical specifications
-Displacement: 1,280, 1450 t FL
-Dimensions: 80 m oa x 10.7 x 3.5 m (262ft 6in x 35 x 11ft 6in)
-Armament: 2x 102 mm (4 in), 2x 47 mm AA (3 pdr), DCR, DCT
-Crew: 92

HMS President on the Thames
HMS President on the Thames with the capitol behind in the 1990s.

'24' class (1917)

HMS Sir Bevis (IWM)

Swan Hunter: HMS Ard Patrick, Cicero, Flying Fox, Minoru, Orby, Rocksand, Spearmint, Sunstar (cancelled)
Barclay Curle: Bend Or, Harvester, Iroquois, Sefton, Silvio, Sir Bevis
Greenock & Grangemouth: Donovan, Isinglass, Sanfoin, Sir Hugo
Osbourne Graham: Galtee More, Ladas, Persimmon, Sir Visto
Blyth Shipbuilding: Merry Hampton, Ormonde.

The '24' class (22 ships built in 1918–1919) were totally symmetric to confuse Uboat captain over their heading. They had two identical island bridges, but were flush deck. However their single mast forward and funnel after gave some clues. They are still considered part of the flower class by most authors due to their general design and dimensions. They were derived from the Flower-class while being double-ended, ordered as "sweeping sloops" but never used in that role. Twenty-four (hence the name) were ordered, between December 1916 and April 1917, again under the Emergency War Programm. Two however were cancelled before launch. They were named after famous racehorses, (winners of The Derby but had nothing to do with the Racecourse class (paddle minesweepers) becoming the 24 class to not confuse communications. They had also the better range of them all, carrying 260 tons of coal in their roomy hull, appreciated by the crew. This was much better than the 130 tons of the standard Flower class.

Like the Flower-class they had the same single-screw but identical deckhouses and gun shields at both ends and straight stems and sterns to make them even more symmetric. Four of those completed had a single mast aft of the funnel (in the exact center) while the rest had it forward of the funnel. It looks strange it was not chosen two masts to really perfect the silhouette. In any case, this symmetrical design included even fake anchors at the stern, and of course, fake waves painted also at the stern. They had all of course a vibrant dazzle camouflage. Most were resold to the civilian market but HMS Flying Fox in WW2 with the RNZN (tranfs. 1920), Silvio which became HMAS Port Moresby in WW2, or HMS Merry Hampton which became a Survey ship in February 1923 as Herald and scuttled in February 1942 at Selatar, salvaged by the Japanese Navy, then IJN Heiyo in October 1942, sunk by hitting a mine on 14 November 1944.

ard patrick

Technical specifications
-Displacement: 1,320-1,340, 1500 t FL
-Dimensions: 80.5 oa x 10.7 x 3.2 m (267 ft 6 in x 35 ft x 10 ft 6 in)
-Propulsion: 1 shaft TE 4 cyl, 2 cyl. boilers, 2,500 hp. 17 knots
-Armament: 2x 102 mm (4 in), 39 DCs
-Crew: 82

Other patrol vessels

PC-Boat class (1917)


These much smaller vessels compared to the Flower class were called "decoy patrol boats". They had a distinct civilian appearance but does not belong officially to the Flower class sloops. These PC boats were also called the "ultimate Q-ships" and 19 of these decoy patrol boats were built in 1917–1918, featuring an even more pronounced civilian silhouette. A dedicated article will be made about them.

The last of these were very different ships:

-The P class or "P-Boats" were small, fast ships designed as pure submarine hunters, or "utility destroyers". In all, 45 ships were built in 1915–1917. An article has been dedicated to the P-Boats.

-The Kil class were 'patrol gunboats', were class as sloops strictly speaking by most authors, and used in the same ASW escort role from the start. In all, 81 ships were delivered by civilian yards in 1917–1919, all modelled after a whaler. They will be seen in a specific article.


PC Boat, PC 55
PC Boat, PC 55

HMS Kildary
HMS Kildary, "Kil"

Src/read more

R.Gardiner Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906-1921

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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