Armoured Cruisers - Rossiya, Gromoboi

Rossiya class cruisers (1896)

The Giant Russian Cruisers

Back in the 1890s the fast-growing Russian Empire and its global ambition worried the British naval staff much more than the threat posed by a then still small German Navy. The Russian Navy in 1893 ordered for the pacific squadron two massive cruisers to be used as long-range commerce raider. By 1896 the first was launched , the second was to follow in 1899. But her displacement and size reached a peak for an armoured cruiser, and the Royal Navy ordered the two Powerfuls in response. Indeed by 1896 with her 12,300 tons and heavy armament, the Rossia (bearing a very significant name) was the largest warship afloat in this category. Still today the Rossia and her near sister-ship are impressive with their tall bows, spurs, striking white hulls and three lines of portholes, they looked like liners crammed with artillery. Both took a significant part in the Russo-Japanese war, and later participated in WW1, Gromoboi even duelling with SMS Von der Tann.

Gromoboi visiting Australia in 1901

Design

Armament

Rossia counted four 8-inch (203 mm) 45-caliber, Pattern 1892 guns sponsoned on each side of the main battery decks. These guns fired a 193.5 pound (87.8 kg) shell at 2950 feets per second and 12,000 yards only due to a lower max elevation. There were therefore no main guns on the deck as the secondary battery, which comprised no less than sixteen 6-inch (152 mm)/45 Pattern 1892 guns was also entirely placed in barbettes or hull embrasures (center). Two of these Canet guns were mounted in the bow and stern. They had a better range (12,600 yd) but their twice lighter 91.4 pound (41.5 kg) shells hit the target slower (2,600 feet per second (790 m/s). Their tertiary artillery which was dealing with TBs comprised twenty 47-millimeter (1.9 in) Canet 43 1892 pattern guns, two 47 mm (1.9 in)/43 Hotchkiss AA guns and eighteen 37mm (1.5 in)/23 fast-firing revolver guns. The latter can hit any ship at the rate of 20 rounds each passing minute at 2700m. In addition for close-quarter duels, no less than five 15 inch (381 mm) torpedo tubes were mounted above the water line, but their original 1880s Whitehead torpedoes were replaced by better models in time.

Protection

A real progress on the previous Rurik's relatively low-grade steel plates, the Rossia, like the Gromoboi, was fitted with newly developed Harvey armor. Krupp armour was a first choice, but Russian production proved too complicated. Both had their bottoms sheathed in wood and copper to reduce biofouling. Both also shared a bow that trimmed badly in bad weather, and through improvement the issue was somewhat solved, both ships estimated being good sea boats, with smooth roll due to tumblehome sides. Apart their thick conning towers (12 in or 305mm) in Krupp armour, Rossia had a better armoured belt than the Gromoboi: The waterline belt extended from the stern to almost the bow (but 80 feets), extended 1.4 m above the waterline and 1.2 m below, and 8 inches (203 mm) thick, reduced to 6 abaft the machinery spaces, 5 at the stern. This belt was closed off at the forward end by a 7 inch transverse bulkhead. Gromoboi's belt was reduced in thickness by 2 inches (51 mm), shorter and less tall above waterline. The barbettes were 4.7 inches (119 mm) thick, decks 2–3 in (51–76 mm).


Blueprint of the Gromoboi


Blueprint of the Rossiya

Propulsion

To act as commerce raider, Rossia was fitted with a unusual machine arrangement, with one large vertical triple expansion steam engine driving the two external shafts and one smaller cruiser VTE engine for the central shaft. What was really unique was there was not enough steam to drive all three engines simultaneously, so either the central one, or two external shafts had to be uncoupled. No less than thirty-two Belleville water-tube boilers fed these VTEs. 15,523 ihp (11,575 kW) on trials gave about 20 knots (to be precise 19.74 knots or 36.56 km/h. 2,200 long tons of coal gave a 7,740 nautical miles (14,330 km; 8,910 mi) radius and by 1898 oil fuel was also tried.


Gromoboi and Rossiya at sea in 1904, off Vladivostock

Differences

The Rossia, often assimilated to Gromoboi as they shared the same hull, were very similar and are so presented here. However, they were not sister ships, differing in many aspects, the Gromoboi being heavily modified in the meantime. Overall, both were derivative of the Novik, a mixed cruiser with sail and steam, but their masts had only a reduced sail. both had similar length, showed four funnels, short foremast and armored tops. Rossia's original secondary armament comprised twelve 3-in (76 mm) against 24 on the Gromoboi, which in addition only four 3-pdr (47 mm) against twenty on the Rossia, and four 1-pdr (37 mm) against fourteen on the Rossia. Distribution was also different, the secondary guns of the Rossia being placed in side ports, while those of the Gromoboi were in barbettes, giving them a better range. In addition, the belt shield was inferior on the Gromoboi, and she was significantly slower.


Artist impression of the Gromoboi at sea in 1901 (pinterest, origin unknown)

The Rossia and Gromoboi in action

The two units took part in the Russo-Japanese War: They were present at the battle of Uslan and badly hit, but resisted enough to escape. Returning to port, they were so riddled as to be nicknamed "tin strainers". Their protection was deemed disappointing. In 1906, their drydock overhaul was used to re-arm them with six 6-in (152mm ) guns, tertiary armament being reduced to fifteen 3-in (76 mm) and two 1-pdr (37 mm) plus two TTs instead of the original five On the Rossia.


Gromoboi in 1922 grounded at Liepaja. She was broken up in situ by a German company.


Cruiser Rossiya after 1906

Rossia's carrer

Built at Baltic Works, Saint Petersburg, the large cruiser was foundered on a sandbar en route to Kronstadt for fitting-out. Before even finishing her trials she participated in Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee Fleet Review in June 1897 at Spithead, and departed for Nagasaki, Japan in March 1898, then joined Vladivostock where she remains until the outbreak of the war in 1904. She was the flagship of the far east squadron that also comprised the Gromoboi, Rurik, and Bogatyr under command of Rear Admiral Karl Jessen. They undertook sorties against Japanese shipping bound to Port Arthur, assisting the siege, with some success. She also tested an observation balloon for some time.


Rossiya testing an observation balloon

Battle off Ulsan
This was both cruiser real test of fire: Th Russian squadron blockaded at Port Arthur tried to break out but were rebuffed with heavy losses at the Battle of the Yellow Sea. Jessen's squadron departed on August, 10 to assist it, loosing Bogatyr en route, reaching the island of Tsushima at dawn but failing to see any Russian ship leaving Vladivostock. They however found the blockading "flying" Japanese squadron (Vice Admiral Kamimura Hikonojō), and cruisers Iwate, Izumo, Tokiwa, and Azuma. However at night, both squadron failed to spot each others and passed by, but at 5:00 am, after maneuvering, both squadron this time had visual contact and battle began at 5:23, opening fire at 8500m.

All four Japanese armoured cruisers concentrated on the rear ship Rurik, and was left behind. Both squadrons tried to get in range, and at 06:00 Admiral Jessen turned back to reach Rurik and allowed her to participate in the ensuring fire fest. But as Rurik was hit again, this time Rossiya and Gromoboi placed themselves between the Japanese and the wounded cruiser. They scored many hits on Iwate but the Japanese replied and put Rossia on fire (which was extinguished 20 min later). Both ships resumed manoeuvers but at 08:15 Jessen ordered Rurik to join them to Vladivostock. Both ships fought a fighting retreat for 1h30, being slowed sown at 15 knots. Eventually the Japanese broke off and turned back to finish off the Rurik, previously sunk by the slower Naniwa and Takachiho.


Rossiya's side damages after the battle of Uslan

Damages on the Rossiya were relatively serious, but no hit was scored under the waterline and repairs could be done in two month. She has taken 19 hits starboard and 9 port, with 44 dead and 156 wounded. Half the losses on Gromoboi, because the captain ordered his crews manning the exposed light artillery to lay down and those manning the unexposed guns to go below.

After the war, Rossiya returned to Kronstadt on 8 April 1906, for a three years refit. Masts and armament, were revised and redesigned, with the addition of four guns broadside. In 1909 she visited the Azores, participated in King George V's Coronation Fleet Review in June 1911 and Copenhagen. She later cruised the Mediterranean from April 1914 when the war broke out. She was mobilized and quickly transformed as a minelayer for the 2nd Cruiser Brigade of the Baltic Fleet. Together with Oleg and Bogatyr she laid a large minefield in january 1915 between Kiel and the Mecklenburg coast, claiming light cruisers SMS Augsburg and SMS Gazelle (badly damaged but not sunk). In october 1915 her armament was augmented again, and she ended with a broadside of six eight-inch and seven six-inch guns. With the revolution, she came under control of the Soviet Red Fleet in September 1917 and later joined Kronstadt, making her "ice voyage" before being interned and eventually sold in 1 July 1922 to the German Company to be broken up. Foundered en route on the coast of Estonia she was later salvaged and towed to Kiel to be broken up.

Gromoboi at war

Gromoboi for "Громобой" meaning "Thunderer" was also a commerce raider and served as such during the Russo-Japanese War of 1905, but was eventually severely blooded a the Battle off Ulsan when going back home to Vladivostock. Transferred to the Baltic like her sister-ship she took part in ww1. Before fitting out she was forced aground by sea ice, and later departed for repairs. She left Liepāja on 10 December 1900 for the far east, and when stopping at Kiel, she was examined by Prince Henry of Prussia. She was later present at the constitution to Australia, visiting Sydney and Melbourne and then joined Nagasaki and finally reached Port Arthur on 29 July 1901; By the time the war erupted she did several sorties against Japanese shipping, claiming for example the Hitachi Maru loaded with siege howitzer and troops, and followed the fate of Rossiya at the battle of Uslan.


Gromoboi's battle damage after the battle of Ulsan

As a consequence of her fighting retreat towards Vladivostock she suffered at least 15 hits starboard, 7 port side of the hull and many more on the superstructures, deploring 87 dead and 170 wounded. In Vladivostock she was repaired and armament was modified, with the addition of six new 6-in guns, received Barr and Stroud rangefinders and Telefunken radio equipment but a mine hit later condemned her to extensive repairs until the end of the war. The interwar saw a lengthy refit at Kronstadt, and she emerged with engines and boilers reconditioned, less light guns, new 460mm TTs, foremast removed, artillery rearranged, armor modified (upper-deck casemates was increased to two inches, new casemates built, telemeter towers...). After her engine refits in the summer of 1911 she reached on trials 18.5 knots.

During the great war she was part of the 2nd Cruiser Brigade of the Baltic Fleet and was used as heavy minelayer, carrying 200 mines. In one of her sorties on August 10, 1915she duelled with German battlecruiser SMS Von der Tann at the entrance to the Gulf of Finland. Until 1917 her armament was modified once more, when she traded its 6-in guns for an additional eight-inch guns. She also received two 2.5-inch and two 47 mm anti-aircraft guns while the light artillery remaining was deposed. Part of the Soviet Red Fleet in September 1917 she departed for Kronstadt and was placed here in reserve. However on October 1920, her crew mutinied and scuttled the ship. later sold for scrap to Germany she ran aground in a storm near Liepāja and was later broken up in situ.

Sources

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_cruiser_Rossia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_cruiser_Gromoboi
Conway's all the world fighting ships 1860-1906

Specifications (1914)

Dimensions (L-w-h)146,60 x 20,9 x 8,5 m
Total weight, fully loaded13,220 long tonnes
Armament4x 203 mm, 22x 152 mm, 19x 76 mm, 6x47 mm, 2 TT 381 mm
ArmorBlockhaus 305, deck 75, casemate 120, belt 152 mm
Crew877
Propulsion3 props, 3 VTE engines, 32 Belleville boilers, 15 500 hp
Speed (road)20 knots (38 km/h; ? mph)
Range?

Gallery


Illustration profile of the Rossia in 1914
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North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Consolidated PBY Catalina
Brewster F2A Buffalo
Curtiss SOC seagull
Douglas SBD Dauntless
Douglas TBD Devastator
Grumman J2F Duck
Grumman F3F
Vought SB2U Vindicator
Vought Kingfisher
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Nakajima A1N
Nakajima A2N
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N Navy Type 97 "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N Tenzan "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y Navy Type 96 "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y Suisei "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M Navy Type 96 "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M Navy Type 1 "Betty" (1941)
Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu Type 4 "Peggy" (1942)
Yokosuka P1Y1 Ginga "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 Type 2 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K Tokai-Ren "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M Navy Type 90 "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 43 K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Yokosho Rogou Kougata
Aichi Type 15-Ko Mi-go
Aichi H9A
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi E16A "Zuiun"
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi M6A1 Seiran
Aichi E11A "Laura"
Hiro H4H
Nakajima E2N
Nakajima E3A
Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 Kyofu "Rex"
Watanabe E9W
Watanabe K8W
Yokosuka K1Y
Yokosuka E1Y
Yokosuka K4Y
Yokosuka H5Y

Italian WW2 air arm CANT 6
CANT 18
CANT 25
CANT 25
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
CANT Z.515
CANT Z.511
CANT Z.515
Caproni Ca.316
Fiat CR.20 Idro
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M3
Macchi M5
Macchi M18
Macchi M24
Macchi M41
Macchi M53
Macchi M71
Piaggio P6
Piaggio P8
Savoia-Marchetti S.55
Savoia-Marchetti S.56
Savoia-Marchetti S.57
Savoia-Marchetti S.59
Savoia-Marchetti SM.62
SIAI S.13
SIAI S.16
SIAI S.67

British Fleet Air Arm
Fairey Swordfish
Fairey III

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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