Evstafi class battleships (1910)

Battleships - Evstafi, Ioann Zlatoust

Genesis: 1905' cruel lessons

The total defeat suffered by the Pacific fleet, then the entire baltic fleet in the hands of the Japanese in 1905 not only durably harmed the regime's authority outside but weakened it inside as shown by the Potemkine mutiny and popular bread walks suppressed by force. This will re-emerge in 1917 and bring the Romanov dynasty to its knees. For the Navy, lessons had been learnt, and when designing the next pre-dreadnought, still on the basis of the Potemkine class (1903) but larger and with many modifications that much delayed their completion to 1911. By then they were hopelessly outmatched and stayed in the black fleet, facing the Turkish navy as possible opponent and their career was relatively short, as both has been scrapped in 1922, barely after ten years of service.


The previous Potemkine class, on which the following design was largely based.

Not the last Russian pre-dreadnoughts

As such, these battleships not only capitalized on the Potemkine design, but many aspects were studied with caution. They displaced 12,738 long tons (12,942 t), versus 12,480 long tons (12,680 t). In reality they were 45 tons lighter. They were slightly larger, 385 ft 9 in (117.6 m) instead of 378 ft 6 in (115.4 m), a bit wider at 74 ft (22.6 m) vs. 73 ft (22.3 m), however their engines were essentially the same and top speed about 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph), unchanged. Despite being late in the game, the Evstafi class was not the last one, strangely, it was indeed superseded by the next Andrei Pervozvanny-class battleship, which were completely designed from the bottom-up with the 1905 lessons at heart and probably among the most powerful and capable pre-dreadnoughts worldwide ever designed.


The next Andrei Pervozvanni class was much larger and hybridated with dreadnoughts features, namely greater speed and much powerful armament. These were designed since the beginning to integrate 1905' battles lessons, while the Esvstafi has been modified so after launched.

Evstafi Class Armament

In armament however, they received an additional four 6in secondary guns (203 mm) in addition to their main artillery of 152 mm, slightly reduced from 16 to 12 cannons to compensate. The main artillery comprised two pairs of 12-inch 40-calibre Pattern 1895. Each had a 260 degrees traverse, +35/-5° elevation can fire at 4 rpm, with 75 shells in storage. The 331.7 kg shells can find their mark at 20 km (22,200 yards). The brand new 8-inch (203 mm) 50-calibre Pattern 1905 guns were mounted in armoured casemates fore and aft, each with a 120° traverse, and 20° elevation. The HE shells weighted 264.3 pounds (119.9 kg), travelled at 2,647 ft/s (807 m/s) and found their mark at 14 km (15,800 yds), with 110 more in storage for each artillery piece.

Evstafi at anchor, black sea fleet, prewar.
Evstafi at anchor, black sea fleet, prewar.

The secondary armament also comprised a traditional set of 6 in (152 mm) pieces in lower casemates, 12 Canet Pattern 1892 45-calibre guns in all. With a 20° elevation, these 91 pounds (41 kgs) shells had a maximum range of about 7 km, with a rate of fire of up to 15 rpm with a well-trained crew. The tertiary artillery meant to deal with TBs comprised fourteen 75-millimetre (3.0 in) guns Canet Pattern 1892, versus 14 × 75 mm M1892 Canet guns and six 47 mm (1.9 in)/40 Hotchkiss guns on the Potemkine. For close encounters, the ship was given the same two single 17.7-inch (450 mm) torpedo tubes on the broadside. Each travelled at 29 or 34 knots at about 2000 or 3000 m depending on the speed selected, and carried to the target a 212 pound (96 kg) warhead of TNT.

Evstafi Power Arrangement

As explained before, the Evstafi class relied on a solution similar to the previous class, with 2 shafts propelled by 2 Vertical triple expansion steam engines, fed by 22 coal-fired Belleville water-tube boilers. Top speed was 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph) and range 2,100 nmi (3,900 km; 2,400 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). By comparison the next class would be able to reach 18 knots. The boilers operated at 242 psi (1,669 kPa; 17 kgf/cm2). On trials, the ships reached 10,800 ihp (8,100 kW) for a top speed of 16.2 knots (18.6 mph). They carried 1,100 long tons (1,100 t) of coal.

Protection

Both ships were given a reviewed protection, with German Krupp armour which had a max. thickness (belt) of 9 inches (229 mm) down to 3 inches on the underwater ends and decks. The upper belt was 3.1 to 5 in (79–127 mm) in thickness, the Casemates 3.1 to 5 in (79–127 mm), the conning tower 8 in (203 mm), while the Main turrets were protected by 8 to 10 in (203–254 mm) and main barbettes by 4 to 5 in (102–127 mm).

A lengthy fitting out

The Evstafi was laid down in 1904 and launched in 1906 at Nikolayev Admiralty Shipyard, Nikolayev and the Ioann Zlatoust Sevastopol Shipyard, Sevastopol at the same dates, but in May rather than November. However fitting out took years, whereas it's usually much faster, as many design revisions accumulated as long as reports from the Russo-Japanese war bring new elements to consideration. One such modifications were the main and secondary gun's elevation, suppression of three torpedo tubes, mine stowage and the 47 mm QF Hotchkiss guns. Protection at the waterline fore and aft of the main belt was enhanced greatly. Also a second conning tower was added at the rear, and the heavy masts were replaced by light pole masts and light booms for increased stability.

The Evstafi class in service

Both ships appeared as the most powerful battleships in service in Russia by 1911 and they joined the Black sea fleet as flagships; Famously the Evstafi was the Black Sea flagship, carrying Vice Admiral Andrei Eberhardt's personal mark at the battle of Cape Sarytch. Before that, the fleet performed a shelling of Trebizond on 15 November and again on 17 November. They went hunting for Turkish shipping along the Anatolian coast but changed course and headed to Sevastopol when they intercepted on theyr way back the German battlecruiser Goeben and the light cruiser SMS Breslau.

Evstafi colorized
A nice colorized photo of the Evstafi in service with the black sea fleet

Cape Sarytch Battle

The battle was not an easy win as the fog prevented the ships in line to spot the enemy and the new Russian tactic using a "master ship", there the Ioann Zlatoust to direct fire for the whole line, caused delays. Both the Evstafi and Goeben duelled at 4,000 yards (3,700 m), taking hits. The Evstafi was stuck in the middle funnel, destroying the antennae for the fire-control radio. This caused the battleship to not relay anymore accurate data (she was the lead ship) to Ioann Zlatoust, and from then on, had to rely on her proper data. As expected all the other ships included the master ship all fired inaccurately due to Ioann Zlatoust's incorrect data, and the Goeben escaped disaster. Goeben hit Evstafi four more times before Admiral Souchon decided to break and head for Constantinople. Evstafi suffered 34 killed and 24 wounded, fired about 12-16 main shells, and 14 and 19 secondary battery shells. Figures were about the same for the Ioann Zlatoust were lower, with just six shells fired and no hit. So the battle was seen afterwards like a draw.


Russian battleships en route to battle, November 1914

Before the Revolution (1915-1917)

The two next years of the war, the ships went partly inactive, but for exercizes, however from march to May, both sister ships and the fleet performed bombardments on the Turkish forts and installation of the Bosphorus. In May, 9, Turkish destroyer Numune-i Hamiyet spotted the ships, alerting the Goeben that quickly rallied; Both forces spotted each other from afar and set parralel courses but duelled at 17,400 yards (15,900 m), scoring only near-misses. The Russian Admiral then decided "brake" to 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph), which leaved the Goeben at full speed unable to "cross the T" of the Russian line. After more turning manoeuvers, Tri Sviatitelia and Pantelimon rallied the line, and Pantelimon hit the Goeben twice. The German battlecruiser broke and fled but the slower Russians were unable to catch it.

Battleship Ioann Zlatoust Battleship Ioann Zlatoust

In 1915, the threat if air warfare was taken seriously and QF anti-aircraft guns were mounted on top of each of the turrets and screens on top of their funnels to avoid lucky bomb drops. Tertiary armament also varied from an addition of four 75-millimetre guns to two and two 63.5-millimetre (2.5 in) guns. After the dreadnought Imperatritsa Mariya entered service, both ships formed the 2nd Battleship Brigade. On November, the ships bombarded Zonguldak and Kozlu and later in May 1916 to the second bombardment of Varna. After the revolution started both ships has been mothballed and went into reserve in March 1918.

In May, they were both captured by the Germans in the context of civil war, and then passed on to the allies. The British inherited both ships in December, and after the situation went badly for the "whites", their engines were wrecked in 22–24 April 1919. Eventually the Whites returned and the ships were recaptured in turn by the Bolsheviks in November 1920. Records shows both ships had been scrapped in 1922-23 but not stricken from the lists before 1925.

Evstafi class Specifications

Dimensions (L-w-h)117.6 x 22.6 x 8.5 m 386'x74'x28'
Total weight, fully loaded12,738 long tons as designed
Armament2x2 305mm (12 in), 4x203mm (8'), 8x152mm (6') 12x75mm (3'), 2x457 mm (18') TTs
Armor Belt: 9' (230mm)
Turrets: 10' (254mm)
Barbettes: 10' (254mm)
Conning tower: 8'(203mm)
Crew928
Propulsion2 shafts, 2 VTE engines, 22 boilers, 10,600 ihp
Speed (road) 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph)

Links, sources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evstafi-class_battleship
https://www.dreadnoughtproject.org/tfs/index.php/Evstafi_Class_Battleship_(1906)
https://www.scribd.com/document/75633907/Evstafi-Class-Battleships
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Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Consolidated PBY Catalina
Brewster F2A Buffalo
Curtiss SOC seagull
Douglas SBD Dauntless
Douglas TBD Devastator
Grumman J2F Duck
Grumman F3F
Vought SB2U Vindicator
Vought Kingfisher
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Nakajima A1N
Nakajima A2N
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N Navy Type 97 "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N Tenzan "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y Navy Type 96 "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y Suisei "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M Navy Type 96 "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M Navy Type 1 "Betty" (1941)
Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu Type 4 "Peggy" (1942)
Yokosuka P1Y1 Ginga "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 Type 2 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K Tokai-Ren "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M Navy Type 90 "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 43 K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Yokosho Rogou Kougata
Aichi Type 15-Ko Mi-go
Aichi H9A
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi E16A "Zuiun"
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi M6A1 Seiran
Aichi E11A "Laura"
Hiro H4H
Nakajima E2N
Nakajima E3A
Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 Kyofu "Rex"
Watanabe E9W
Watanabe K8W
Yokosuka K1Y
Yokosuka E1Y
Yokosuka K4Y
Yokosuka H5Y

Italian WW2 air arm CANT 6
CANT 18
CANT 25
CANT 25
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
CANT Z.515
CANT Z.511
CANT Z.515
Caproni Ca.316
Fiat CR.20 Idro
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M3
Macchi M5
Macchi M18
Macchi M24
Macchi M41
Macchi M53
Macchi M71
Piaggio P6
Piaggio P8
Savoia-Marchetti S.55
Savoia-Marchetti S.56
Savoia-Marchetti S.57
Savoia-Marchetti S.59
Savoia-Marchetti SM.62
SIAI S.13
SIAI S.16
SIAI S.67

British Fleet Air Arm
Fairey Swordfish
Fairey III

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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