Vettor Pisani class armoured cruisers (1895)

Italy (1895) Vettor Pisani, Carlo Alberto

These two armoured cruisers succeeded the unique Marco Polo. Criticisms of the latter (armament and armor too light) led the engineers under the direction of Edoardo Masdea to design much heavier ships (7000 tons at full load against 4800 to house a battery of 12 pieces of 152 mm instead of 6). Despite everything, they did not possessed really heavy artilley pieces, unlike those that fitted other contemporary ships. Started in 1892 in La Spezia and lauched in 1895 and 1896, they were completed in 1898 and 1899. The two ships differed in their masts, the Pisani having a single central mast while the Carlo Alberto had two masts. They would serve later in the first tests of the Marconi TSF on the high seas, which were realized in 1902 and were crowned with success.

Vettor Pisani 1912
Vettor Pisani in 1912

Design

Vettor Pisani was previously the name of a corvette that left Italy in 1882 for a three-year voyage round the world. The new Armoured cruiser designed for the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) was just 99 meters (324 ft 10 in) between perpendicular, and was 18.04 meters (59 ft 2 in) wide, so about 1/5 ratio. These were bulky ships by cruiser standards. Their crew comprised 28 officers and 472 to 476 enlisted men.

Powerplant They had two vertical triple-expansion steam engines, and two propeller shafts. Eight Scotch marine boilers with exhausts trunked into a funnels pair amidships provided the steam, coal-burning. They were designed for a maximum output of 13,000 indicated horsepower (9,700 kW). Top speed was 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph) also as designed, but both ships exceeded this in sea trials. Their coal reserve gave them a range up to 5,400 nautical miles (10,000 km; 6,200 mi) at a 10 knots cruise speed (19 km/h; 12 mph), sufficient for the Mediterranean and beyond and justified by their 7m draught.


Carlo Alberto class blueprint

Armament
Both ships were similarly armed, with twelve quick-firing (QF) Cannone da 152/40 A Modello 1891 (152 mm/6 in), 40-caliber guns in single mounts on the broadside. Eight were present on the upper deck, four at the corners of the central citadel (in armored casemates). Each weighed about 6.6 metric tons and fired a 45.4-kg (100 lb), AP capped shell at 700 m/s (2,297 ft/s). This main armament also comprised single 40-caliber QF Cannone da 120/40 A Modello 1891 at the bow and stern and two others on the main deck between the 152 mm guns. They fired 20.4-kg (45 lb) AP shell at 645 m/s (2,116 ft/s). Their light artillery to deal against TBs comprised fourteen QF 57 mm (2.2 in) Hotchkiss guns and six/eight QF 37 mm (1.5 in) Hotchkiss guns. For close-quarters they had four 450 mm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes.

Armour
Both ships had an armored belt 15 cm (5.9 in) thick amidships. This protection was reduced to 11 cm (4.3 in) at the bow and stern. The side armor was 15 cm thick located in the middle of the ship, to the height of the upper deck. The curved armored deck was 3.7 cm thick and the conning tower armor was 15 cm thick. The 152 mm guns had 5 cm (2.0 in) shields.

Cruiser Vettor Pisani


Vettor Pisani off Venezia 1904. Vettor ("Victor") Pisani (1324 – 13 August 1380) was a Venetian admiral, commaner in 1378 during the war against the Genoese

The Pisani was built at Castellammare di Stabia, a Royal Arsenal. In 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion, the cruiser was flagship of Rear Admiral Candiani, commander of the Cruising Squadron dispatched to China. She later stopped at Japan, Korea and Vladivostok before returning at La Spezia in 1902. Se then returned in Asia on 15 April 1903. A wireless communication was succesfully tested between the Italian Legation in Peking off the coast of China. This was one of the first ship-borne long-range radio transmissions worldwide. Carlo Alberto did even better. She returned in home waters in 1904, and nothing is noted until a cruise in Greek waters in 1908.

Her first serious engagements occured in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12, she was then flagship of Rear-Admiral Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi. The cruiser, accompanied by five destroyers sailed in the Adriatic and then to the ionian sea, and made contact with two Ottoman torpedo boats, just a few hours after the war was official. One fled, the other was beached. Prevesa was blockaded and threatened to be shelled, followed by an ultimatum. However the endeavour stopped there as it threatened Ottoman-controlled Albania by the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the government backed up. In April 1912, the Pisani, together with the 1st, 2nd and 4th Divisions departed from Taranto to the eastern Aegean Sea and shelled the Dardanelles forts. The cruiser made another sortie in June with destroyers.

When WW1 broke out, the ship was obsolete but maintained in service throughout in the Adriatic. She participated shelled a rail line near Ragusa Vecchia (Dalmatian coast) in mid-1915. But later the loss of Cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi and Amalfi severely restricted the activities of Venice squadron. The Pisani was converted as a repair ship in 1916 and stricken on 2 January 1920, sold for scrap and broken in March.

Cruiser Carlo Alberto

Carlo Alberto with a 1902 white livery, vintage postcard source

The italian armoured cruiser was named after King Charles Albert of Sardinia. She was buit at the Arsenale di La Spezia. Her first deployment was in South America and she was back home in 28 February 1899. She was sent to the Far East right away and returned in June 1900 and then she was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet. She served as the royal yacht for Victor Emmanuel III, and was to attend the Coronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra in 1902.

Marconi-telephone_wires
Carlo Alberto testing Marconi telephone wires

However the latter being delayed to the summer, she became base ship for Guglielmo Marconi's radio experimentations. The cruiser also took Victor Emmanuel to a meeting with Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, in Kronstadt and then returned to England before the coronation ceremony. In the wake of this International event of crowned head she participated in the fleet review at Spithead. On the return voyage Marconi conducted long-range experiments from Poldhu, Cornwall, an the Carlo Alberto in September for more testing. He renewed experiments from Glace Bay, Nova Scotia for more radio messages across the ocean and in December, from Glace Bay to Poldhu.

Italian_armoured_cruiser_Carlo_Alberto_1902
Carlo Alberto in 1902 - Imperial War Museum

Later on, Carlo Alberto was sent to Venezuelan waters in 1902–03, with an international force for the country's refusal to pay foreign debts. She was deployed in Salonica and From 1907 to 1910 she served as a gunnery and torpedo training ship. From 1910 she returned to her role as initial cruiser. She participated in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12 as an active training ship, shelling Tripoli, and supported assaults on Zanzur, Zuara and in Tripolitania. She later remained in the Aegean Sea until 1913. During WW1 she was based in venice but was not active. In 1917 after a service without notable events, she was taken in hand for conversion as a troop transport. On 4 April 1918 she was renamed Zenson and returned to service in that new office until 1920. She was later stricken from the Navy list, and sold to a scrapyard.


Carlo Alberto at anchor

Displacement & Dimensions 6400-6600t, 7000-7100t. PC; 105.70 x 18 x 7.20 m
Propulsion 2 propellers, 2 mach. VTE, 8 cyl. Boilers, 13 220-13 250 hp. and 19 knots max.
Armour Belt 150, Blockhouse 150, Shields 45, Deck 30;
Crew 480
Armament 12 guns 152, 6 of 102, 14 of 57, 6 of 37, 2 Howtizer, 2 ML, 4 TLT 450 mm

Carlo Alberto
Illustration of the Carlo Alberto (1/750) by the author


Carlo Alberto, Conway's illustration, The Blueprints.com

Sources/Readmore
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vettor_Pisani-class_cruiser
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_cruiser_Carlo_Alberto
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_cruiser_Vettor_Pisani
Piero Christini Illustration
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Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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