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Fürst Bismarck (1897)

German Empire (1897) Heavy cruiser

The Kaiser's first heavy cruiser

The Fürst Bismarck ("Prince Bismarck") named after the Chancellor and statesman which unified Germany in 1870, was also the name of the first "Großer Kreuzer, 2nd Klasse", the first German heavy cruiser. Why "heavy" and not "armoured cruiser" ? Previous denominations of German cruisers had been hectic, notably the "aviso-cruisers" or "cruiser-corvettes" of the 1880-90s. It came from a lineage started in the Frigates and corvettes of the late 1870s, masted aviso-cruisers of the 1880s and the first modern armoured cruiser, SMS Kaiserin Augusta, followed by the five ships of the Victoria Luise class. See the complete lineage of German cruisers in WW1. She should have been the lead ship of a class of five more armoured cruisers but another direction was taken, towards far larger cruisers, and thus individual ships, the Fürst Bismarck launched in 1897, and the Prinz Heinrich in 1900, before settling on relatively close series of armoured cruisers, the Prinz Adalbert, Roon, and ultimatey Scharnhorst class. So the F.Bismarck was basically a transitional vessel, testing innovations.


German colonial Empire in 1914

Development

Fürst Bismarck was designed before the naval arms race between Germany and the United Kingdom. Admiral Hollmann, State Secretary of the Naval Office was perfectly aware of the total dominance of the British Royal Navy and it was just assumed impossible to compete. Hollmann instead looked towards asymmetric naval warfare and vowed for a fleet of torpedo boats and coastal defense ships to defend German waters. A complement of cruisers needed to be provided for overseas duties and trade protection. However after Frederick III succeeded him, to die shortly after, a young Wilhelm II started his long reign. He had a more liberal political course in mind. Before competing with the RN he wanted at least a colonial empire and a fleet capable to defend it. Cruisers, which had long range and and a good armament to face anything that was lower than a battleline, seemed ideal.

SMS Kaiserin Augusta
SMS Kaiserin Augusta (1890)

Efforts were made in the 1880s to transition from what was basically glorified masted gunboats to real cruisers. The year 1897 was important, as Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz came onboard as state secretary of the German Imperial Naval Office. He devised a rather practical, but still ambitious plan naval plan. He theorized this new force, albeit not capable of facing the RN, at least its existence would force Great Britain to agree to diplomatic compromises. Tirpitz started in 1898 with full support of Kaiser Wilhelm.

But the Fürst Bismarck was designed before these reforms and was the last of its kind and can be seen now largely as a transitional vessel. As the first "true" armored cruiser to be designed by the German navy, Fürst Bismarck was largely based on the previous Victoria Louise-class cruisers. It had a forecastle for seakeeping in the north sea, nearly twice the displacement, better range, speed, armour, and a more powerful armament. This was the first cruiser specifically design to stand-guard and defend German colonies in the Asia-Pacific theater. There was heavy political opposition nevertheless, linked to the idea of a colonial empire as well, but the new ship was approved by the Reichstag 1896.


Victoria Luise class.

Design




Compared to the Victoria Luise class, built at the same time, the new cruiser displaced double, at 10,690 t and 11,461 t fully loaded versus 5,660-5,885 t. standard. This traduced by larger dimensions of course, less in length a 127 m versus 110, but in beam at 20.40 m versus 17 m. The draft was also sensibly deeper. Power-wise, more generous dimensions helped to stack 12 water-tube boilers of a larger type, for an increase from 10,000 to 13,500 shp, still on three shafts. Top speed was about the same, some of the Luise class were even faster, 19.7 knots versus 18.7. On range, the previous ships were limited to 3,412 nmi (6,319 km; 3,926 mi) at 12 knots, better than the Fürst Bismarck's 3,230 nmi (5,980 km). Cruise speed was thus reduced to 10 knots. Overall, the larger dimensions mostly help getting a better armament and protection.

Her hull comprised transverse and longitudinal steel frame, but the internal construction comprised a single layer of wooden planks, covered by a Muntz metal sheath. It extended 0.95 m (3.1 ft) above the waterline while lower portions, from stem to stern were covered with bronze plating.

Powerplant

Fürst Bismarck's powerplant was rather traditional, and on three shafts. Each was driven by a vertical four-cylinder, triple-expansion engine, and each was fed by four Thornycroft boilers built under license by Germaniawerft, for a part, and the remainder eight had cylindrical boilers. The Thornycroft boilers were divided each into two fire boxes, and the cylindrical boilers had four making for a grand total of 32 boilers. The shafts passed this power to three-bladed screw propeller, the centerline 4.40 m (14.4 ft) in diameter, and outer ones 4.80 m (15.7 ft). Total output as indicated was 13,500 indicated horsepower (10,100 kW), procuring 18.7 knots (34.6 km/h; 21.5 mph) as designed, but on trials, output reached 13,622 ihp but for the same speed. Electrical power came from five generators for a total of 325 kilowatts at 110 volts. In general, SMS Fürst Bismarck was an excellent ood sea-boat due to its elegant clipper-ram bow, and very responsive to commands from the helm. She was taller however and therefore, with a 0.72 m (2 ft 4 in) metacentric height she had important roll problems plus heavy vibration at top speed.

Armament

SMS Fürst Bismarck's comprised main, secondary and light guns, plus torpedo tubes; a classic combination. Main armament comprised four 24 cm (9.4 in) SK L/40 guns in twin turrets fore and aft of the superstructure, mounted in Drh.L. C/98 turrets. Elevation ranged from -5° tos 30°, achieving a range of 16,900 meters (18,500 yd). Sheels carried weighted 140-kilogram (310 lb), exiting the barrels at 835 meters per second (2,740 ft/s). 312 rounds in all were stored, 78 shells per gun. The secondary armament comprised twelve 15 cm (5.9 in) SK L/40 quick-firing guns. They were placed in MPL type broadside casemates. They fired an armor-piercing shell, at an average rate of 4 to 5 per minute. 2,160 shells were carried in all, 120 per gun. Depression coul be as low as −7°, elevation +20° and best range 13,700 m (14,990 yd). Not a large difference with the main guns. These AP shells weighted 51 kg (112 lb) and their muzzle velocity was 735 m/s (2,410 ft/s), control manual (mechanical) whereas it was of course assisted for the heavy 9.4 in guns.


Launch of Fürst-Bismarck in 1897, unlucky she was repaired, delaying her commission

Also ten 8.8 cm (3.5 in) SK L/30 guns were installed for some in individual casemates and the rest on decks, placed on pivot mounts. They fired 7.04 kg (15.5 lb) shells at 590 m/s (1,900 ft/s) and their rate of fire was 15 shells a minute, with a range of 6,890 m (7,530 yd), with manual operation. To complete this, the Fürst Bismarck was given six 45 cm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes, with 16 torpedoes in reserve. One of these tube was placed on a swivel mount at the stern of the ship and could be reloaded from there, while the four others were fixed and submerged on the broadside. The sixth one at the bow, was submerged.

Armour protection

SMS Fürst Bismarck was given Krupp armor for all her platings, and thicker than on the Victoria Luise class.
-Armor belt: 20 cm (7.9 in) beteween barbettes, tapered down to 10 cm (3.9 in) on the ends.
-Additional plating: 10 cm (3.9 in) over critical areas.
-Main armored deck: 3 cm (1.2 in), 5 cm (2.0 in) slopes.
-Forward conning tower: 20 cm walls, 4 cm (1.6 in) roof
-Aft conning tower: 10 cm walls, 3 cm roof.
-Main battery turret: Front and sides: 20 cm, roof 4 cm.
-15 cm turrets: 10 cm front and sides
-Gun shields: 7 cm (2.8 in).
-Casemates: 10 cm shields.
The following Prinz Heinrich was faster, but this was paid by a much thinner armour scheme, and this went on until the Blücher.
To help disseminate and contain ASW blasts, from torpedo and mines, the lower hull was divided into 13 watertight compartments, and completed by a double bottom running on 60% of the length.

Fürst Bismarck Specifications

Dimensions 127 x 20.4 x 7.8 m (416 oa x 66 x 25 ft)
Displacement 10,690 t standard, 11,461 FL
Crew 36 officers, 585 ratings
Propulsion3 shafts, 12 boilers, 3 VTE engines 13,500 ihp (10,100 kW)
Speed18.7 knots (34.6 km/h; 21.5 mph), Range: 3,230 nm (5,980 km)/12kts
Armament2x2 24 cm (9.4 in), 12 × 15 cm (5.9 in), 10 × 8.8 cm (3.5 in) SK L/30, 6 × 45 cm (18 in) TTs
Armor Belt: 20 cm (7.9 in), Turrets: 20 cm (7.9 in), Deck: 3 cm (1.2 in)

Read More:

deutsche-schutzgebiete.de/wordpress/projekte/kaiserliche-marine/seiner-majestaet-schiffe/s-m-s-fuerst-bismarck/ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_F%C3%BCrst_Bismarck Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One: Guns, Torpedoes, Mines and ASW Weapons of All Nations, Seaforth Publishing. Gardiner, Robert & Gray, Randal, eds. (1985). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906–1921. Grießmer, Axel (1999). Die Linienschiffe der Kaiserlichen Marine: 1906–1918; Bernard & Graefe Verlag. Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Vol. I: Major Surface Vessels. Naval Institute Press. Hildebrand, Hans H.; Röhr, Albert & Steinmetz, Hans-Otto (1993). Die Deutschen Kriegsschiffe (Band 3) Ratingen: Mundus Verlag. Padfield, Peter (1974). The Great Naval Race. Edinburg: West Newington House. The Model Corner: At least one: By NNT Modell+Buch of the cruiser in 1906, 1:700

The Fürst Bismarck in service

1900: The Boxer Rebellion

Launched at Kaiserliche Werft on 25 September 1897, the new cruiser was completed on 2 March 1900. However at that stage, the ironclad Sachsen accidentally collided with her, and her stern was damaged, imposing repairs. Sea trials only started from 19 March, revealing alterations were needed, but the Boxer Rebellion in China prevented this, and Fürst Bismarck was sent to the East Asia Squadron, departing Kiel on 30 June, refuelling at Gibraltar, Port Said, Port Tewfik, souther Suez Canal, Perim (Red Sea) and went through the Indian Ocean, Colombo, Ceylon and at last Singapore on 4 August. This was the crew's own inaugural training cruise.

She escorted there the troop transport steamers Frankfurt and Wittekind, up north to Tsingtao, the main German naval base in the Kiautschou Bay concession, arriving on 13 August. Vizeadmiral Emil Felix von Bendemann took command of the East Asia Squadron and left SMS Hertha for Fürst Bismarck. He had under command also the cruisers Hansa, Kaiserin Augusta, and Irene, plus the unprotected Gefion and Seeadler. At Hong Kong, the Detached Division consisted in the four Brandenburg class battleships and the aviso Hela used as troop ships; and later reinforcements arrived, the Geier, Schwalbe, and Bussard plus the gunboats Luchs and Tiger, three torpedo boats of the S90 class and a hospital ship, Gera. In total the German Navy sent 24 warships and 17,000 soldiers, about a tenth of the massive 250 warships and 70,000 soldiers from the combined eight nations force. The commander, Bendemann, decided to blockade the Yangtze, and Fürst Bismarck, Gefion, Irene, and Iltis made the line. After the seizure of Peitsang and other harbors, Bendemann attacked Shanhaiguan and Qinhuangdao which surrendered. On 5 October, Fürst Bismarck arrived off Taku with SMS Hertha, Hela, Brandenburg, and Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm.

East Asia Squadron 1901-1904

In February 1901, the fight was nearly over and the East Asia Squadron resume normal duties. Fürst Bismarck visited Japanese ports with SMS Geier and two TBs by mid-1901. In September she visited Port Arthur and later returned in Japan for a shipyard maintenance in Nagasaki. Reports said then her stern was frequently leaking. The German army and navy gained quite an experience from this far away massive projection of power, underlying the need for logistics and an important network. As Germany did not hold many ports or colonies there, a maritime transport department was created in the Reichsmarineamt in 1902. Fürst Bismarck departed Japan on 15 January 1902, meeting the next month Hertha and Bussard in Singapore.

Bendemann was replaced as squadron commander by Vice-Admiral Richard Geissler. Thetis joined the squadron later, but Kaiserin Augusta left with two TBs. In April, Schwalbe, Geier, and Luchs were sent to Ning Po, protecting Europeans. Fürst Bismarck was kept the flagship of the squadron which toured East Asian ports goind west to the Dutch East Indies, with training exercises in between. Tsingtao and Japan were main maintenance portas. Schwalbe left for Germany September, replaced by Geier and on 25 December, the Schießpreis (Shooting Prize) was awarded for excellent gunnery to Fürst Bismarck, representing the squadron. In early 1903, Fürst Bismarck was based in the Yangtze with Hansa and Thetis before returning to Tingtao in April, doing exercises until May, and touring Japan, hosting at one occasion the Emperor Meiji and his staff. She visited the Russian Pacific Fleet in Vladivostok by August and in November, the squadron had a new commander, Counter-Admiral Curt von Prittwitz und Gaffron.

The Russo-Japanese war

After her maintenance, Fürst Bismarck went on with ports visits and exercizes in 1904, while tensions grew between Russia and Japan over Korea. On 7 January, the Admiralstab instructed Prittwitz und Gaffron to observe a strict neutrality in the area. SMS Hansa evacuated German speaking citizens from Port Arthur and Dalny as a precaution. Japan eventually severed diplomatic relations with Russia on 5 February, and so the Russo-Japanese started. On 12 February, Hansa returned to Port Arthur to evacuate the last civilians. After the Battle of the Yellow Sea on 10 August 1904, Some damaged Russian ships ended in Tsingtao, like Tsesarevich and Novik, interned until the end of the war while Fürst Bismarck and the East Asia Squadron enforced this internment, destroying Russian naval mines in between, as some could migrate into German commercial lanes. By early 1905, riots erupted in China so the squadron remained in Tsingtao until March.

The Russian Second Pacific Squadron passed the colony to be later destroyed in the Battle of Tsushima. By the summer, Seeadler and Thetis left the squadron to reinforce the German East Africa and suppress a rebellion. In August Tsing Tao's floating dry dock helped repair Fürst Bismarck in October. By November, Alfred Breusing became the new squadron commander, and in December the latter departed for a goodwill tour of southern East Asia, before heading to Shanghai to safeguard Europeans interests there as a new riot started. She even sent a landing party ashore, amalgamated with those of Jaguar, Tiger, and Vaterland. They patrolled the city cente and guarded the German consulate.

Fürst Bismarck in Manila
Fürst Bismarck in Manila

1906-1908 East Asia Sqn Service

In January 1906, Fürst Bismarck sailed for Indonesia, and Hong Kong before returning in March to the squadron Shanghai, which departed. Fürst Bismarck and Hansa were the only ships left in the squadron at that time. They toured Japan in May, and return to Taku, and entered the Yangtse for a cruiser up to Peking. Naval officers visited the Guangxu Emperor and Empress Dowager Cixi. Later Hansa returned to Germany on 4 July, replaced by the light cruiser Niobe. In November, Leipzig also arrived to give the squadron a three cruisers force. Fürst Bismarck and Tiger made another tour of Indonesia and Japan in 1907 and a new commander arrived, Counter-Admiral Carl von Coerper. Nothing much happened and Fürst Bismarck was awarded again a prize for marksmanship in gunnery exercises. Arcona joined the squadron on 23 October, for a total strenght of four cruisers. By January 1908, Fürst Bismarck made a state visit to Siam, hosting the King at this occasion. By early 1909 at last, the heavy cruiser was ordered to proceed to Germany for a complete overhaul after nine years of intense service that a floating drydock could not procure. On 8 April, departed and met en route the new flagship, the armored cruiser Scharnhorst in Colombo. Fürst Bismarck arrived in Kiel on 13 June.

SMS Furst Bismarck in the Kiel Canal
SMS Furst Bismarck in the Kiel Canal

WW1 years

In 1910, Fürst Bismarck entered Kaiserliche Werft, Kiel after an extensive modernization. The naval staff knew the ship was ageing in its role and wanter to convert her as a torpedo training ship, replacing the old ironclad Württemberg. The heavy fighting masts were replaced by light poles, the two aft-most 15 cm casemate guns removed, along many other modifications. This did not have full priority, so this work lasted for four years. She was completed indeed in July 1914. On 28 November 1914 she was recommissioned, her last captain being Ferdinand Bertram, former head of the artillery school. She made her post-refit sea trials, but by the staff not assigned her to a semi-reserve status: She was allocated to the Ist Marine Inspectorate in Kiel, with a skeleton crew, use as training ship. On 6 September 1916 she was disarmed but still operated as training ship in 1917 for commanders of the large U-Kreuzer and zeppelins for coordination. She was eventually decommissioned for good 31 December 1918 but not stricken before mid-1919. A floating office until May, stricken on 17 June she was sent to the Reichswerft in Kiel, sold to a Dortmund company, BU 1919–1920 in Rendsburg-Audorf.



Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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