Hai Yung class protected cruisers (1897)

Chinese Beiyang Fleet - Hai Yung, Hai Chou, Hai Chen

The Chinese German-built cruisers

After the crippling losses of the Sino-Japanese war, and ten years after the losses of the Sino-French war, the Chinese Navy needed to be bolstered again. Due to conflicting intererests with the British and French, China once again ordered several warships to Germany. Two serie of cruisers were orered, the Hai Chi and Hai Yung class. They were all protected cruisers intended for the depleted Beiyang fleet (northern fleet). The Small 2nd class protected cruisers were ordered simultaneously with two larger ships of Hai Chi class at the Vulcan shipyards of Stettin.

Hai Chi class
The larger, 1st class protected cruiser Hai Chi for reference (colorized by Irootoko jr. - From Pinterest)

The yard had quite a long history with China and there was mutual trust. Previous ordered also included the first German battleships ever exported, the Dingyuan class ironclads (1881). The Hai Yung class cruisers were launched in 1897-98 and completed in 1898. They served during the 1905 revolution, changing onwers and surviving the war, but fell into disrepair and lack of maintenance. Eventualy they were obsolete in the 1930s and would have been relegated as gunboats, but they were never officially discarded. Insted, they were scuttled on August 1937 like most of the Chinese fleet ships not sunk in the Japanese attack.

Design of the Hai Yung class

The Hai Yin, yet another cruiser design
The Hai Yin, yet another cruiser design of that era.

The Hai Chi and Hai Yung class were basically respectively 2nd and 1st class protected cruisers. The design of the Hai Yung class was relatively classic, and designs influences have been the British Apollo class, Italian Regioni class, but overall a close resemblance to the Dutch Gelderland-class cruisers. But overall, the main inspiration seemed to have been the Gazelle class cruisers then in construction. Germany used the Gazelle class as the basis for all light German cruisers before WW1.

The three-staged hull comprised a forecastle, poop and ram-shaped stem. There was a departure from previous designs of heavy, slow firing guns. For these cruisers, the Chinese government choosed to use lighter, but quick-firing 150mm/40 guns, placed in a characteristic "triangular" scheme: Two guns aside on forecastle, third on poop, and this was completed by 105mm and 47mm guns mostly broadside on the upper deck.

Hull & protection

Hai Yung design scheme

The Hai Yung class was a relatively small protected cruiser, displacing 2680 tons standard for a Length of 328 ft (100.0 m), a beam of 40 ft 9 in (12.4 m) and a draft 19 ft (5.8 m). Protection consisted in an internal deck armour ranging from 2.75 down to 1.5 in (70–38 mm) with sloped sides: The machinery space was protected by 32 mm of deck armour plating with 70 mm slopes which formed a turtleback. At the ship's ends the armour plating had 25 mm thickness. All gun shields were protected by 2 in (51 mm) and the conning tower was given 1.5 in (38 mm) walls, and for Chinese sources, 50 mm (2 in too). 1.5 in was perhaps the roof.


The cruiser had two a shaft reciprocating VTE steam engine coupled with eight cylindrical boilers which developed 7,500 ihp (5,600 kW). The cruisers carried 200–580 tons coal. Top speed was noted in specifications to be 19.5 knots (22.4 mph; 36.1 km/h). Sea trials in Germany showed the ships could reach the actual figure of 8,400 hp (6,300 kW) on forced heating, and reach 20.75 knots (38.43 km/h). However it could not be maintained long. After arrival, the top speed achieved was 20.25 knots (37.50 kilometers per hour).
Locally, the ships were known as the Hǎiróng class (海容). The crew consisted in 244 officers and sailors.

Hai Chen
Hai Chen, date unknown


The Hai Yung class cruisers were armed with three Krupp 5.9 in (15 cm) QF guns placed on the forecastle (two side by side) and a single on the poop. This arrangement gave them ideal traverse. The secondary armament comprised eight Krupp 105 mm (4.1 in) QF guns and later six 37-mm-Hotchkiss-Autocannons were added. The 10.5 cm guns were placed in sponsons with recesses at each end, and four more behind the broadside walls. The Hotchkiss were placed mostly on the upper deck, with two behind walls, in between the 10.5 cm guns, and two at the prow behind recesses. Two were placed on platforms behind the bridge, and two on platforms above the rear quartedeck house.
This was completed by three submarine torpedo tubes of 14 in (360 mm) caliber, bow and broadside.
In the 1930s the only modernization consisted in adding a single 40/39 2pdr QF Mk II AA gun.

Author's pofile of the Hai Tien



Dimensions100 m x 12.4 m x 5.8 m draft.
Displacement2,680 tonnes standard -approx. 2,900 tonnes Fully Loaded
Propulsion2 shaft VTE, 8 cyl. boilers, 7500 ihp.
SpeedTop speed 19.5 knots, 2500? nm range, about 580 tons coal.
Armament3 x 150 mm (5.9 in), 8 x 105 mm (4 in), 12 x 37 mm QF Hotchkiss.
ArmorDecks 70–38 mm, gun shields 51 mm, CT 38 mm.

Src/Read More

Robert Gardiner (Hrsg.): Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905
Arlington, L. C., Through the Dragon's Eyes (London, 1931)
Wright, R., The Chinese Steam Navy, 1862–1945 (London, 2001)

Active service of the Hai Yung class 1900-1937

Early service (1898-1903)

On May 4, 1898, the then ambassador to Germany, Lu Haihuan, was present at the sea trial of the Hai Yung, lead ship of the class, showing her reaching more than 20 knots, in fact close to 21 knots, which was excellent. On May 13, the Hai Yung departed for China with a German crew, passed Ceylon on June 28, and arrived in Hong Kong on July 12, then Dagukou on July 27, 1898.

In 1899, the Qing dynasty reorganized the Beiyang naval division, recruiting Beiyang former admirals to replace the commander-in-chief Ye Zugui and choose Sazhen Bing as the commander. The Hai Yung by then was one of the most modern and capable bof the New Beiyang Navy. The Gengzi Incident (The Boxer rebellion) broke out in 1900: Ye Zulun's fleet was stationed in Tianjin, and the cruiser Hairyung was posted as flagship of the fleet at the Leiyue Wharf in Dagukou. Ye Zulun did not intended to engage the arriving coalition warships, which overwhelmed his forces, so he ordered instead his cruiser to leave Dagukou to comply with the imperative orders of the coalition commander, and drop anchor as the coalition fleet started operations, accepting to be boarded. The "Xin Chou Treaty" was signed avec the rebellion and the the coalition forces released the Hai Yung.

Russo-Japanese war (1904)

When the Russo-Japanese War broke out in 1904, the Beiyang fleet was stationed in Yantai. On August 10, 1904 the Yellow Sea naval battle took place and the Russian Pacific Fleet failed to break through and was trapped in Port Arthur. At 04:15 the following day however a Russian destroyer managed to flee and took refuge in Yantai, surrendering to the Chinese navy. She was disarmed and handed over to the Chinese navy.

The cruiser Hai Chou
The cruiser Hai Chou

Hai Yung sent a steamboat to take care of her. Meanwhile the battle was over. At 19:30, the Japanese Navy IJN Chao Chao and Xia suddenly entered the port. Sa Zhenbing boarded the Japanese ship to start negotiations, and the Japanese ship were convinced to leave the port. However, at 03:30 the following day, IJN Chao Chao sent a small boat to approach the Russian destroyer, requesting the crew to surrender or be engaged by the Japanese. The situation quickly degenerated as the Japanese attempted to take the Russian ship ion tow, violently opposed by the Russian crew.

The incident was watched by the three cruisers present when two IJN destroyers were sent to forcibly capture ships surrendered to the Chinese navy. Pointing guns on the Chinese vessels. This incident caused an uproar in the Chinese public opinion. On the morning of November 16, the Russian destroyer was broke through her captain did not trust the Chinese Navy’s ability to guarantee neutrality, but after an exchange of letter to the Russian consul it was decided to scuttle her. Hai yung departed for Shanghai afterwards.

On the evening of January 1, 1905, five Russian destroyers and several other vessels broke through from Lushun, and they entered Yantai on January 2. The Hai Yung was rushed to Yantai from Shanghai on January 6, 1905, to watch the Russian ships and respect neutrality. When the Second Pacific Fleet was sighted along the souther Chinese coast, the cruisers Hai Chi, Hai Bian, Hai Yung and Hai Chen patrolled Shanghai waters to prevent the detained Russian ships in Yantai to flee and join the Russian fleet, that could be breach of neutrality. The two sides later signed an armistice agreement and the Chinese navy return the Russian warships. As the autumn came, China ordered 7 Marconi radio stations, of which three were used by the Army, and four installed on the four cruisers (of the Hai Chi and Hai Yung), a first in the Chinese Navy.

The 1906 Goodwill tour of asia

In 1906, the Hai Yung sailed alongside the Hai Chi for a six-month trip through Southeast Asia, making a survey of the living conditions of the Chinese communities abroad. The two cruisers left Shanghai on October 27, 1906, visiting Hong Kong, Manila, Saigon, Bangkok, Singapore, Batavia, Semarang, Soerabaya, Muntok, Bangka and Penang. They returned home via Singapore. In 1908, a new commander of the Chinese fleet was appointed, Admiral Sa Zhenbing. He placed his mark onboard the Hai Chi, and sailed to Amoy with Hai Yung, her sister ships Hai Chou and Hai Chen, and other units, where they received the American Great White Fleet. In 1910 there was another cruiser and visit in Amoy, and Sa Zhenbing attended the ceremonies again.

In 1910, Portugal clashed with the Qing Dynasty over a border issue related to Macau. The Portuguese claimed that if China did not agree to expand Macau's borders there would be naval escalation, Portuguese warships and even likely to shell China's coastal cities. Hai Yung and Hai Ban were dispatched in the area as a show of strength in Macau, forcing Portugal to return to the negotiating table. The revolution which took place in Portugal that year scrapped any more pretenses on Macau.

The Hai Yung in the 1911 revolution

When the Revolution of 1911 broke out the Navy, mostly loyalist, immediately mobilized to fight the Revolutionary Army. In late October, Hai Yung and Hai Ban arrived at the Yangluo and Sazhen Bing raised his mark on the Hai Yung, while Shen Shoukun, commander of the Yangtze River Fleet, made the Hai Chen his flagship. However, many officers sent radio message propagate revolutionary ideas. On October 26, the three cruisers shelled Revolutionary Army positions near the paper mill, causing serious casualties to a unit which withdrew. The day after Hai Yung, Hai Bian, and Hai Che, shelled the flank of the revolutionary army, forcing troops to retreat to ​​Dazhimen.
At around 06:30 the next day, the cruisers combined with the Yangtze River Fleet shelled positions of the Wuhan Revolutionary Army, but with poor accuracy, while one ship was hit in return by the revolutionary field artillery. After 20 minutes, the Navy withdrew from the sector and at 15:20, fired on the spotted artillery positions on the hillside of Wuchang, opposite Hankow's jade belt gate area.

However officers of various ships started tp sympathize with the Revolutionary Army and often ordered gunners to fire without taking aiming. As the revolution progressed, propaganda mutinies began on various ships while others refused to fight. The cruisers left Wuhan for Shanghai, but soon after their departure, they lowered the dragon flag of the Qing Dynasty, replaced by a white flag, and at noon on the 13th, they entered Jiujiang.

Wuhan sent Xu Mingda and Li Zuodong to Jiujiang intended to seize the ships for the Revolutionary Army. Meanwhile indeed the war in Wuhan and Anhui needed the ships's guns for support against Qing troops. The 'Jiujiang fleet' was split into two, the first sailed out to later take Huang Zhongying as commander while the second Fleet (Tang Xiangming) was to return to Whuan. It comprised Hai Yung, Hai Chen, and Hue.

They started shelling Qing positions at 11:00 on the 19th, from Qingshan, on positions around Liujiamiao. At 15:pm Hai Yung approached the Yellow Crane Tower and the Qing army mistakenly took the revolutionary flag for a British flag, and failed to fire on her. Subsequently, the cruiser succesfully drove down the river, opening fire almost point-blank on the Qing army as soon as she was out of the concession area to avoid a diplomatic incident. Hai Yung however was only 500 m from Qing guns positions and took some hits. Her commander was killed and three officers were injured. The cruiser's funnel was riddled with shrapnells and the hull had two hit holes.

On the 22 October, Hai Yung and Hai Chen were ordered by the Governor of the Hubei Army, Li Yuanhong, to attack Qing positions on the Chenjiaji River in Wuhan. They were also to cover the Revolutionary Army’s third division dangerous crossing of the River. Qing Artillery positions near Sandaoqiao fought back however, with 100 mm artillery pieces and others of larger caliber. They hit both cruisers several times, 10 were killed. The starboard, rear mast, funnel of the Hai Yung were damaged, while the Hai Chen's torpedo room was completely destroyed. In return, both cruisers"s fire killed around 400. The day after as planned, both cruiser screened the Revolutionary Army crossing, forcing the Qing army to retreat. On the 24th however, the Qing army counterattacked causing heavy casualties, and captured Qingshan. On the 25, the Revolutionary Army covered by the cruiser landed in Yangluo, but failed to make a bridgehead and had to withdraw on the other side of the river. On December 7, as the water level of the Yangtze River dropped both cruisers retreated to Jiujiang and on 18, negotiations forced the ships to return to Shanghai for resupply and maintenance.

Hai Yung circa 1900
Hai Yung circa 1900

Post-revolution service

Hai Yung served after 1911 for the Chinese Republic with most of the Navy, but funds were lacking and the ships needed maintenance. In January 1912, the Provisional Government of the Republic of China ordered the Northern Expedition with the Hai Yung class under Tang Xiangming, commander of the Navy at its head. On January 16, 1912, they sailed to Yantai, which had declared independence.

The second revolution broke out in 1913 and in July the Beiyang Fleet was led by Commander Li Dingxin, assisted by Zheng Rucheng, deputy of the Navy Guard. They were sent to resist Yuan Jun's attack. In August Zhang Xun and Feng Guozhang attacked Nanjing and Liu Guanxiong dispatched Hai Chi and Hai Yung to shell the Lion Rock Fort while the Beiyang Army launched a general offensive. After the end of the Second Revolution the Department of the Navy decided to modernize the fleet and adopted the Siemens Telefunken 2.5TK radio which allowed a 1700 km range. Former Marconi systems was installed on the Nan Chen. In addition, the old bow dragon pattern decoration of the class and other ships was removed and the aft battle mast removed to lower the center of gravity while its pedestal bas was reserved for use as a maintenance platform.

The Hai Yung class during WWI

At the end of July 1914, Japan was likely to declare war on Germany and both Hai Chi and Hai Yung were stationed in Yantai. On December 25, 1915, the Yunnan became independent and a new civil war broke out. In April 1916, the Beiyang Army requisitioned the Hai Yan, Xin Ming and Xin Yu to carry the 12th Division to Fujian, while Hai Chi and Hai Yung provided escort. However on April 20, when the fleet passed Wenzhou in heavy fog, Hai Yung collided with Xin Yu. The captain and two electricians survived but the entire crew and more than 700 army officers and soldiers drawn that day as the ship, rammed and broken in two, sank quickly. It happened off Fuchow and the cruiser needed extensive repairs.

On July 1, 1917, Zhang Xun was restored while Hai Chou and Hai Yung, were ordered by Cheng Biguang to sail to Tianjin, planning to return there with Li Yuanhong but the misson failed. In July Cheng Biguang led fleet southwards and Haip Chou, Hai Yung, were persuaded by the Duan Qirui government to remained under the Beijing government authority and not follow Cheng Biguang. In August the Beijing government declared war on Germany so both cruisers participated in the confiscation of German and Austrian ships stranded in China.

Hai Yung

Long after the outbreak of the October Revolution in Russia, civil war was spreading and in 1918, Hai Yung was sent to join the entente intervention in Vladivostok in favor of white Russians and to maintain order. The Beiyang government also upgraded Hai Yung with a Long Wave radio station. The refitted cruisers departed from Shanghai on April 9, 1918, and arrived in Vladisvostock on April 16. in July she assisted the Russian Siberian Provisional Government Army against the Bolshevik assault, even sending sailors ashore to patrol. It was discovered meanwhile that radio range was unsufficient. Messages were relayed by an US warship. At the end of July 1918, Lin Jianzhang, captain of the Hai Yung was appointed navy general. On May 20, 1919, Hai Chou replaced Hai Yung in Vladivostok and the latter returned to Shanghai, sent in drydock in Jiangnan Shipyard for maintenance. On October 25, Hai Chou returned to Xiamen to monitor the law-enforcement army and was replaced in turn by Hai Yung.

Interwar period


On July 5, 1920, the U.S. Intervention Army held a five-nation military alliance including China in Vladivostok and after the Soviets established the Far East Republic, the intervention forces withdrew one after another, Hai Yung returning in November. In April 1922, civil war broke out again. Commander of the Second Fleet Du Xigui and Lin Jianzhang disputed what line should be protected. Zengzhen Bing ordered Hai Chou, Hai Yung and Yong Ji north to assist the second fleet at Qinhuangdao, supporting an assault against Fengjun. The Northern Expeditionary of Army Xu Chongzhi retreated to the border between Fujian and Jiangxi and later Xu Shuzheng was sent to negociate with with Sun Yat-sen. Later one the government asked the Navy Department to investigate Li Houji and First Fleet Commander Zhou Zhaorui onboard Hai Yung send a Marine Corps to Fujian, while the training fleet (Yang Jingxiu) was sent to capture the Longmen Fortress. In July 1923 Yang Shuzhuang landed Marines to attack Zang Zhiping Department, Xiamen Army in Anhui without success. In June 1923 steamship Shenzhou Maru from the Kobe East Steamship Co., collided with Hai Yung and the Chinese claimed 6,700 yuan denied by the Japanese captain, which appealed to the Japanese Consulate in Fuzhou., which confirmed his position Anti-Japanese sentiment grew on, but to avoid a war, compensation was ultimately paid.

In April 1923, the cruisers had their electrical installation modernized in Shanghai with alternative current. In 1924, the Jiangsu-Zhejiang War broke out and Qi Xieyuan tried to unify the navy by force. Commander Du Xilu tried to led the first and second fleet to cooperate and in September the battle rage near Huangdu, west of Shanghai with the fleet stationed in Fujian confronting the Shanghai navy. The Shanghai fleet was later captured by Du Ximin. In July 1926, the National Revolutionary Army captured Wuchang. Wu Peifu suffered heavy losses and later the Navy began negotiations with the Kuomintang.

After Chiang Kai-shek's promises, the Central Fujian Navy resigned and in November the First Fleet in Fujian attacked. On February 1927, the Shanghai fleet participated in the second armed uprising of Shanghai workers. The Second Fleet (Chen Shaokuan) led the Hai Yung attacked Wusong Fort, and shelled the Liuhe area. Inn April the Navy was reorganized and the Hai Yung class cruisers formed the basis for the newly formed First Fleet. Its ommander Chen Jiliang, led the fleet to defend Wusong in Jiangyin. In May Hai Yung and Hai Chou went on patrol and forced Hai Chi to withdraw.

In 1928, Hai Yung's hotchkiss guns were replaced with four Vickers 6-pdr (47mm guns) and four 3-pdr (37mm guns) and later, a single Vickers 40 mm (2-pdr) AA was installed. In 1929, the Jiang Gui War broke out and in May Hai Yung, Ying Rui, and naval gunboats escorted the army troop carrier from Wusong south, followed by landings in Shantou and Humen. In June 1933, the Xuejia Island incident broke out. Hai Chi, Hai Chen, Zhao He, and the three other ships defected from the Northeast Navy and turned to Chen Jitang. In July the Nanjing fleet (Chen Shaokuan) was ordered to sail to intercept three ships in Nantou. In June 1935, Hai Chi and Hai Chen left the Guangdong Army, defecting to join Hong Kong, avoiding an air attack of the Guangdong Army. The Central Navy performed an exercise off the coast of Fujian when Chen Jiliang led the First Fleet blockade Hong Kong. Hai Chi and Hai Chen left Hong Kong, under guns of Ning Hai, which fired warning shots, forcing them back. Ning Hai, Hai Yung, and Hai Chou entered Hong Kong during, asked the two ships to hand over their guns breeches to be disarmed and join the central navy northwards. They refused and the stalemate went on until the end of June, leading to a compromise. The two cruisers would be sent to Shanghai separately.

End of the Hai Yung class: The second Sino-Japanese war

When the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937, the Hai Yung class was out of date and in poor condition and on september 25, they were sunk as block ships in the Yangtze river. The Admiralty prior to this mobilized the local fleets to conduct a three-month preparation exercise in Nanjing and in September the Military Commission ordered Hai Chi, Hai Chen, Hai Chou, and Hai Yung to form a blockading lined right in the Yangtze. Due to the hasty order, Hai Yung's 150 mm were not removed, only one was salvaged but the 105 mm and lighter guns were all removed and put into storage. The AA guns ended on the gunboat Yong Sui. On April 25, 1959, the Shanghai Salvage Engineering Bureau salvaged the Hai Yung and dismantled her for scrap metal.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
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Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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