WW1 French Navy

The story of "La Royale"

An introduction: Origins to the XIXth Century "La Royale", literally, "The Royal" (navy) is still the old nickname of the French Navy today -the most conservative of the three army branches- dating back from Francis the 1st, then in open rivalry with Henry VIII, it was later expanded and formalized in 1624 by Cardinal of Richelieu (Louis XIII) and later by able ministers of Louis XIV, Colbert in particular. With the revolution, most of the officers (appointed nobles) were comprehensively guillotined or fled the country. Under Napoleon, the Navy was in poor shape due to neglect and had to ally with the the Spanish Armada. This was disaster first at Abukir then Trafalgar in some of the most defining moments of British history and fateful for the world.

Battle of Virginia Capes
Battle of Virginia Capes (Chesapeake), 1782. The Franco-British Naval Rivalry was about empire building worldwide in the XVIIIth century, and one of its consequences was the birth of the United States.

The French fleet had been in the XVIIth and even more at the time of the seven years war (under louis XV) arguably on par with the Royal Navy at least in terms of numbers. Admiral De Grasse intervention on the Chesapeake bay and Yorktown famously helped George's Washington's army besieging Lord Cornwallis which had to surrender, giving in effect the United States its independence. However, after the Napoleonic Wars, despite of light constructions, it has fallen well behind its former glory. The situation was long maintained to a gradual return to "half-parity" and the industrial revolution, but the French Navy was still well above most countries at that time, many small divided kingdoms (Italy, Germany etc.).

Napoleon, the first screw-propelled steamship of the line (cc)

In the 1830s was invented the Paixhans gun, an explosive shell that quickly proved devastating (battle of Vera Cruz 1838) and was widely adopted as a standard. In 1849, talented naval engineer Dupuy De Lôme created the first sea-going first steam-propelled ship of the line, the Napoleon, screw-propelled. It was tested in Crimea, as well as armoured floating batteries. The Royal Navy was not long to follow and both navies launched in a frenzy of steamships constructions or reconversions until the 1870s. In between, De Lôme stroke again, with the first sea-going ironclad, the Gloire in 1859, and revealed later a working submarine, the Plongeur ("Plunger") in 1863. Given the state of French naval industry at that stage, the Gloire was only a modest converted frigate, cladded with armour plates from the waterline to the upper deck over the wooden hull.

Ironclad La Gloire
Engraving of the first sea going ironclad La Gloire, 1859. (cc)

The British already gathered crucial intelligence on the matter and launched the HMS warrior, the first sea-going all-metal ironclad. Soon a new arms race began, the one that will led to ww1 battleships. Later on in 1876, France would launch the first all-steel battleship, Le redoutable, and in 1887, the Dupuy de lôme, claimed to be the first modern armoured cruiser. France's mindset was influenced largely by the Republican ideology, positivism, great confidence in science. Victorian Great Britain and the other hand, had a practical fleet made as large as all other navies combined, and in general much more conservative and pragmatic in its approach to innovation.

La Guerriere frigate in the Tonkin 1866
La Guerriere, frigate in the Tonkin 1866 (cc)

The French Navy prior to the Great War Much to the dismay of Admiral Boué de Lapeyrère, seconded by Durand-Viel, the French Navy started to re-emerge in 1912 from a long eclipse, a poor state which saw it fall to the 4th rank. In between the American, Russian, German, and Japanese Navy all raised to new levels. What happened ? First off, internal reasons prevented either a strong coordination or strong will as this period following the fall of the second empire (Franco-prussian War) and the Paris Commune in 1870, was strife with political instability.

Indeed the third republic was a parliamentary regime plagues by weak governments and fragile alliances in perpetual recomposition. The waltz of ministerial offices and therefore the secretariats in the Navy there were many in the turnaround of the technical choices and orientations. Indeed decisions were taken, to be later cancelled. Added to this the "Jeune école" ("Young School") largely theorized naval warfare aspects, traducing into singular battleships and cruisers, to the point that the french fleet in the 1880-1890s was called by derision the "prototypes navy".

Battleship Vauban
Ironclad Vauban (1882) - Coll. Musee de la marine

There was indeed no real coherence or true classes, despite a distinctive "French style" of battleships. Characteristic with their four single-guns, two main caliber turrets in lozenge, thick military masts, narrow hulls with large tumble homes, tall superstructures...

The "Hoche" nicknamed "Grand Hotel". France entered the war in 1914 with an ageing "fleet of prototypes" of dubious military value compared to the standards of the time. The Hoche was perhaps the most mocked by cartoonists. "What a splendid Target" was presumably said by Kaiser Wilhelm II (1895) then a host at a French Naval Review.

While all other navies followed the British Navy with coherent class of uniform ships, stable with full hulls, low profile, and two double turrets of a single caliber. Production of armour cruisers and cruisers fared not much better, however it was a field that leverage this up: French torpedo boats program, which was quite successful with large coherent class of coastal and sea going models. The blind faith in the revolutionary theories of Young School, led to abandon construction of series of battleships to move towards a destroyers and TBs-based fleet, able to deal with the Royal Navy in an unconventional way.

Le Redoutable Brest
Ironclad Le Redoutable 1876 in Brest - credits: Photo Neurdein - Histoire de la Marine française illustrée, Larousse, 1934.

Despite of all this, in 1914, the French navy still was sure of its power, modernism and effectiveness. By tonnage, in 1885-1895, she was second in the world. As "warming" relationships and collaborations with arch-enemy UK took place, the two marines were still compared as late as 1904, but naval experts rather looked toward the three major rising powers, the German Reich, the US and Japan. It was time to put a breakpoint in these experiments and to return to a traditional standardized fleet in 1904, secured by the signing of the Entente Cordiale between the two old foes.

French Battleship Justice (1906)
French Battleship Justice (1906) at anchor in the USA - credits USN National Archives

France could then turn to the defense of its colonial empire and take better account of the rising threats in the Mediterranean, the Italian and Austro-Hungarian fleet. But encased in its certainties, instability and waste of public funds, the situation of the navy still at its lowest. In 1906, the first time in years, UK was taking a technological advantage in presenting the Dreadnought. However by 1908 previous designs in construction were already obsolete, whereas in 1910, the French navy still do not possessed any dreadnoughts or battle cruisers, nut instead a collection of old battleships and cruisers, slow and poorly protected. The only tangible progress came with the late pre-dreadnought of the homogeneous class Patrie, république and Danton, which arrived too late.

In 1909, Admiral Boue de Lapeyrère, who had had every opportunity to decry the carelessness that had brought down France fourth naval rank, arrived at the Ministry and managed to get his massive plan naval rearmament approved. He Focused on the rapid modernization of the fleet. The plan, which was voted in 1912, involved the construction of 28 dreadnoughts, 10 fast light cruisers (scouts), 52 destroyers, 94 submarines and and 10 gunboats and corvettes. The plan theoretical completion was scheduled in 1920, but was abruptly stopped by August 1914. This plan included the Courbet class battleships, but also the Bretagne, Normandy and Lyon, the last to be completed between 1916 and 1918-1919. The first adopted the "standard" 305 mm caliber, the second 340 mm and the latest 356 mm. The first two classes were completed in time to be thrown into the fire, but the other were cut short by the consequences of the the 1921 Washington Treaty.

Battleship Courbet in Toulon, modernized in 1932, Illustration by Francis T. Hunter, Coll. Beatty, Jellicoe, Sims & Rodman. (cc)

In August 1914, France returned with a navy composed of old and mismatched ships, but crews were well trained and of high morale despite the poor consideration of the navy, that always passed in second behind the Army. Best proof that without the construction plan being canceled, shipyard workers joined the front, or were converted to the production of guns and shells. The plan had to resume in 1918, but at that date, naval strategy already has gone great lengths the planned ships were already somewhat outdated in design.

Fleet composition in 1914

WW1 French Battlecruisers (Projects)
WW1 French Battleships
Charles Martel class (1891)
Bouvines class coastal BS (1893)
Charlemagne class (1899)
Henri IV (1899)
Iéna (1898)
Suffren (1899)
République class (1902)
Liberté class (1904)
Danton class Battleships (1909)
Courbet class (1911)
Bretagne class (1914)
Normandie class battleships (1914)
Lyon class battleships (planned)

WW1 French Cruisers
Dupuy de Lôme (1890)
Admiral Charner class (1892)
Pothuau arm. cruiser (1895)
Dunois class (1897)
Jeanne d'Arc arm. cruiser (1899)
Gueydon class arm. cruisers (1901)
Dupleix class arm. cruisers (1901)
Gloire class arm. cruisers (1902)
Gambetta class arm. cruisers (1901)
Jules Michelet arm. cruiser (1905)
Ernest Renan arm. cruiser (1905)
Edgar Quinet class arm. cruisers (1907)
Lamotte Picquet class cruisers (planned)

Cruiser D'Entrecasteaux (1897)
D’Iberville class (1893)
Jurien de la Gravière (1899)

Seaplane Carrier La Foudre (1895)
Kersaint class sloops (1897)
WW1 French Destroyers
WW1 French ASW Escorts
WW1 French Submarines
WW1 French Torpedo Boats
WW1 French river gunboats
WW1 French Motor Boats
WW1 French Auxiliary Warships


The workforce of this high sea fleet included 25 modern battleships, but only 4 dreadnoughts of the Courbet class, the last (Paris) was being tested at the time of Sarajevo assassination. The three Bretagne were then under construction. The rest of capital ships consisted of pre-dreadnoughts, 6 Danton (1909-1910), the 3 Liberté (1904-1905), 2 République (1903). (Liberté was sunk in 1911 following a boiler explosion, and Jena for the same reasons in 1907).

Battleship Carnot in completion and engines trials - Alexandre Bougault coll. (18 January 1896), Engraving by A Bell - L'Illustration, 18 January 1896, No. 2760, p 53. University of California/Hathitrust

Beyond this, is the realm of "collection". No ship can indeed be formally attached to a particular class, as all differ on armaments, machinery, armour, superstructures arrangements... By chronological order were found the Suffren (1899), the three Charlemagne (roughly similar, 1896), Bouvet (1896), Massena (1895), Jaureguiberry (1893), Carnot (1894), Charles Martel (1893), Brennus (1891), and reserve ships Marceau, Magenta, Neptune, Hoche (1886-1890), thus not counted, but maintained to be quickly serviceable just in case...

French Cruiser Renan
French Cruiser Ernest Renan at full speed circa 1909 - Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers. Washington, DC: R. Beresford. 21. 1909 (cc)

Armoured Cruisers:

The French fleet in 1914 totalled 19 armoured cruisers, however much more vulnerable than their name let suppose, especially for underwater protection. Most were conceived before the entente cordiale, destined to lead commerce raiding against the British Merchant lines. Nineteen were in operation, which constituted a more homogeneous classes. These were the two Edgar Quinet (1907), Ernest Renan (1906), Jules Michelet (1905), the three Gambetta (1901-03), the four Gloire (1900-1902), the three Dupleix (1900-1902), the three Gueydon (1900), Joan of Arc (1899), Pothuau (1895); The three Admiral Charner (1892-1894) in reserve, and the Dupuy de Lôme.

Protected Cruisers:

These were ten protected cruisers in all, quite old for most (pre-1900) and especially heterogeneous, surviving ships from classes of three units. In 1914 these were the Jurien de la Gravière (1899), Estrées, Chateaurenault, Guichen, D'Entrecasteaux, Cassard, Du Chayla, and Descartes. The Friant was in reserve, as well as Lavoisier, Cosmao and Surcouf, in theory too old to serve effectively (1888-1892), but the Friant and Lavoisier were soon back again into active service after the war erupted such was the lack of ships.

coastal battleships:

Built following the strict coastal defensive stance of the "Young school" these units were almost scaled down battleships, still with heavy caliber pieces. This included the Bouvines (1893), all the others being removed from service because of their age. However the three ancient ironclads of the Terrible class (1881-1885), were removed from the reserve after the war broke out, were completely rebuilt and returned as fire support ships in the Mediterranean.

Seaplane carrier La Foudre
Seaplane carrier La Foudre, an innovative vessel first built as a torpedo-boat mothership. Public Domain (cc)


From concepts dating back to 1885, these ships were of little use in 1914. Many of those who remained in service as gunboats overseas. 6 were active, the two Dunois (1897), (school ship or artillery support), the three D'Iberville, (two used as mine-layers) and La Foudre, a strange torpedo-boat carrier/mothership developed by the young school but not followed by any other navy. At the time or operated as such, she could embark 8 small TBs. It was converted into a a seaplane carrier in 1911, the first of its kind.

TB Destroyers:

Many but of too modest tonnage to venture out of the Mediterranean, these vessels could be compared to the oceanic TBDs of the Germans rather than the British ones. In service were units of the Bisson (6) class, Bouclier (12), Chasseur (4), Voltigeur (2), Spahi (7), dating from 1909, to which were added by August 9, 1914 the four Adventurier built for Argentina and requisitioned. There were also the Branlebas class (10) Claymore (13), Arquebuse (20), Pertuisane (4), Framee (3) and Durandal (3). This total represented 80 ships, but some figures states of 85 units, as we could include 4 requisitioned in 1914, but that only goes for 84.

French Navy 1914
French Navy 1914

Torpedo Boats:

First are the modern "high seas TBs" powerful and fast, the Mistral (6), Cyclone (5), and the old Forban, Ariel, Aquilon, Arverne, and Chevalier. Actual destroyers are present in homogeneous, impressive numbers: 75 units of type "38 meters" (1905-1908), 92 of the type "37 meters" (1897-1904) type. Yet this figure is much lower in reality, as between 20 and 50 because many units were withdrawn from the lists and placed in reserve. The '126', which included two classes of 25 and 29 units (1891 to 1895), and 15 of the 35 meter type (1890), had all been removed from the lists, but two remained active, N ° 133 and 158. in total this torpedo force should have been between 100 and 120 units in 1914, all for defensive postings in the French Rivieria.


In this area, the French were pioneers, although not alone: Whether one thinks of the Spanish Ictíneo I (1860s), the Turtle of Bushnell (1760s), the Faidy sub-bicycle (1830), the Confederate Hunley (1863), among others. Engineer Drzewiecky from Russia, and Laubeuf and Zédé for France were instrumental in this quest, as John Holland was for the Americans and the British. Two schools for thinking, two approaches existed. The Anglo-Saxon one which defined a "true" submarine, as fast underwater as in surface and capable to go deep, and the French and Russian schools preferred instead a "submersible TB".

Submarine Narval - Public Domain (cc)

Maxime Laubeuf in particular won an important contract and secured his model for the years to come, the Narval ("Narwhal"), as fast as a TB in surface, but capable to dive quickly and operate underwater for some time, although at slower speeds than the complex Holland types. It allowed to focus less on complex submersion techniques to manufacture destroyers equipped with fillable ballast tanks with air compression systems, electric installation.

Such was influential this design (There was a "before" and "after" the Narval, as most models, including those of Holland, were at least inspired by it at some degree.) that the Germans soon purchased it to produce their first U-boats under licence. This type eventually won and generalized worldwide. The "true submarine" type however will make a return in Germany at the end of the war with the Type XIV and Type XXI, which prefigurated postwar subs until the arrival of the nuclear power.

Gustave Zede
Gustave Zédé, experimental submarine (1894), launched at Toulon. (cc) Public Domain

Less known is the fact than in France, prior to 1914, these two visions existed and competed, encouraged by the Young School. This generated a number of patents of complex engineering and systems which reliability was sometimes questionable. History clearly grants Laubeuf the merit of the first effective, reliable and modern French submersible. The Narval was revolutionary, and won from a subscription, a public contest in 1899.

She was not on the lists in 1909, but deserves attention as well as the old "plongeur" (1863) mentioned higher, closer to a confederate "david" than a real submarine, while the Gymnôte (1888), built by Gustave Zédé, introduced the fins allowing it to dive. It was followed by submersible Zédé by Romazotti, named after the former engineer (1893), the Morse in 1899, followed by the X, Y and Z in 1904-1905.
In 1914, French submarines were quite heterogeneous, combining various classes of ships designed by Laubeuf, Zédé, Romazotti, Maugas, Bertin, and Petithomme. To simplify things let's talk first about the series: These were the Sirène (4), Farfadet (4), Morse (2), but mostly 20 "Naïade" (widely criticized, they were overly complex and utterly unreliable, accumulating fatal accidents to the point of being nicknamed "Noyade" ("drawning") by derision by their crews).

They were relatively old (1901-1905), and coastal. Also were commissioned the two Egret (1904), two Circe (1907), six Emerald (1907-1908), 18 Pluviôse (1907-1909), 16 Brumaire (1911 to 1912), the two Clorinde (1913) and Zédé II (1914). To this must be added the Omega prototypes (1905), the single Archimedes, Mariotte, Admiral Bourgeois, Charles Brown (1909-1910). Others will be constructed during the conflict.

gunboat zelee
Zelee in 1912. She would fight the Emden in Papeete, French Polynesia - Public Domain (cc)


This category included three composite gunboats of the Surprise class (1895-1899), of which the Zélée was opposed to the cruiser Emden, and the composite corvette Kersaint (1897), plus the 2 riverine gunboats of the Vigilante class (1900), operating in China, as well as the Doudart de la Grée (1909), and scores of other local small units located in Indochina and China, as the Pei Ho (1901), Doucet (1886) and Jasquin (1884).

Tonnage in 1914:

Part II - Wartime Constructions:

As previously reported, France chooses to strip its shipyards from workers, send on the front line or to manufacture ammunitions (until women replaced them). The activity did not came to a standstill, however, as progress for planned ships continued at a weak pace, often giving way to guns and ammunition manufactured for the front.

Battleship of the Lion class design. With a 16 x 340 mm broadside, these would have bring much more steel on the target than the British Revenge or Queen Elisabeth class. None was ever completed. We can only dream of what if they had been so, moreover modernized in the 1930s.

Battleships The constructions of the 1912 ambitious plan continued, and so the Bretagne class of which three were launched in 1915 and 1916 were followed by the five Normandy, well advanced in 1918. But the Washington Treaty and its limitation to 175 000 tonnes for France, condemned them. They could have been chosen to replace the four obsolescent Courbet class, but those were not the choices made, and the most advanced of all, the Béarn, would be later converted into an aircraft carrier. There would have been followed by the impressive Lyon class (16 x 340 mm main guns in four quadruple turrets). There were also battle cruisers projects, designed by engineer Gilles in 1913 and planned for 1914, or those of Durand-Viel, planned for 1915-1916 but which remained as paper projects.

Cruisers The French cruisers were already outdated in 1914. No new construction in this area had been undertaken since 1903, although the 1912 plan included 12 "scouts", in line with the kind of ships launched by other marines, very fast and well armed. The class prototype, to be named Lamotte-Picquet, was scheduled for 1915, but the order never came. So, the name will be revived for the next three light cruisers of 1922-1923.

Destroyers As smaller, less-work intensive ships, a single yard managed to deliver the two Enseigne Roux and Enseigne Gabolde. But the lack of manpower led France to buy 12 Japanese destroyers of the Kaba class, rename Arab class, loaned in 1917.

Submarines By contrast, submersible construction fared much better with the release of 6 Amphitrite (1915 -16), 3 Bellone (1915-1917), 2 Dupuy de Lome (1915-1916), of 2 Diane (1915), 2 Joessel (1915), 4 Lagrange (1917), 3 Armide (1916 ) and after the armistice of 3 O'Byrne (1919), Maurice Callot (1921) and Pierre Chailley (1921).

Miscellaneous However, production and conversion of escort units was entrusted to private civilian yards, rescuing a number of small vessels, but also conventional arsenals, including Lorient, Cherbourg, Rochefort, La Seyne (Toulon). Entering service during the war were 6 corvettes of the Marne class (1916-1917), 30 Amiens (1916-1917), the 2 Ailette, 3 Scarpe, 6 Dubourdieu, and Flamand (1917-1918); Gunboats such as the 23 Ardent (1916-1917) class, 9 Luronne/Friponne (1917-1918), the 2 Valiant (1918).

Also were built minesweepers, of the classes Harrow, Granite and Alabaster (16 units), 17 submarine hunters type C101 at the end of the war in 1918-19 in addition to those sent from the USA, and numerous patrol boats, converted tugs, trawlers and coasters, Navarino (12) Bouvines (8), Jacques Coeur (10), Gardon(9), Barbeau (8), Mauviette (30), Hippopotamus (4), Pluvier (15), Aurochs (4), Clameur (6) Athlete (3) and Crabe (12). All returned to civilian service in 1919-1920, but some were still enlisted in the French Navy in 1939. Also worth mentioning were the river gunboat Balny, (same type as the Doudart de la Grée), and 73 light sub-chasers (1916-1918) built in the USA (V1) or France (V41 and V54).

Wartime Constructions:

Part III: The French navy in operations

Certainly shadowed by the epic British and German clashes of shining, fast battle cruisers, it is generally believed that the French fleet did little at sea in 1914-18. In fact, as a tacit agreement with the British, French assets first operated in the theater that best matched the composition of its fleet, the Mediterranean. She never participated in large naval battles in particular because of the combined weight of the Franco-Italian fleet, that dwarfed the modest Austro-Hungarian fleet, rarely venturing outside the Adriatic or away from the safe harbor of Pola. However, the French took an active part in the bombing of the Dardanelles, loosing several capital ships due to mines. Later other losses amounted because of the U-Bootes at large.

French Battleships in the Dardanelles, 1915, near Anzac cove, taking care of Turkish forts.

The first task of the Mediterranean battle squadron was to escort transport ships carrying troops from the North African Colonies to France, or conducting patrols in the Adriatic Sea to prevent any attacks by the Austro-Hungarian Navy. But above all, the French Navy waged war to roaming German U-boats with patrols and escorts. In December 1916, the fleet bombarded Athens and landed a party of Fusiliers Marins, forcing the pro-German Greek government to change its policies. At the end, most critical losses were three pre-dreadnought battleships, one semi-dreadnought, four armored cruisers, one protected cruiser, twelve destroyers, and fourteen submarines.

Gallery: Colorized French battleships

By Hirootoko Jr.
Bretagne WW1
Battleship Bretagne - CC colorized by Hirootoko Jr.
Battleship Jean bart ww1
Battleship Jean bart ww1 - CC colorized by Hirootoko Jr.
Battleship Paris 1914
Battleship Paris 1914 - CC colorized by Hirootoko Jr.
Battleship France 1914
Battleship France WW1 - CC colorized by Hirootoko Jr.
Image hosted by servimg.com
Battleship Courbet - CC colorized by Hirootoko Jr.


On naval-history.net
The ww1 French Navy on wikipedi
On informationdissemination.net

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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