Missile cruiser Garibaldi (1960)

Marina Militare Giuseppe Garibaldi (1936), converted 1957-61, in service 1962-1972

The Condottieri are back in action

Garibaldi 1961

In 1948, Italy still had a considerable fleet of cruisers, survivors of WW2: Most of them were light cruisers of the superclass 'Condotierre', the old Cadorna (discarded 1951), the Raimondo Montecuccoli (taken in hands for modernization later), the Duca d'Aosta (To USSR in 1949), the Eugenio di Savoia (To Greece 1951), the two Duca Degli Abruzzi class, and four Scipione Africano class, of which two were transferred to France in 1948. Only the R.Montecuccoli, the two D.D.Abruzzi and two 'Africano' class left. The admiralty decided that due to their hull age, it was sound to modernize them in some extent. Therefore during the early phase of the cold war, Italy had seaworthy five cruisers, all pending modernization. It varied according to their size and age, and differed on all five.

The smallest one, the G. Germanico and P. Magno were in-between destroyers and cruisers, and were rebuilt as large AA destroyers escorts and of course, renamed, San Giorgio and San Marco. Situation was more complicated for the mush larger three other Condottiere. The 8,500 tonnes R.Montecuccoli was the first modernized, taken in hands in 1947, and completed in 1949: This was a significant modernization as she was indeed converted as a cadet training ship (see later) and served in this role until replaced by San Giorgio, discarded in June 1964, so after a thirty years career.

But the most interesting and ambitious conversion was applied to the two Duca Degli Abruzzi class (which kept their names, still relevant in the context of cold war Italy), modernizations staged in 1949-51 and 1951-53 for the Guiseppe Garibaldi and D.D.Abruzzi respectively, and a second round for Garibaldi in 1960, which became for all intent and purposes, the first Italian missile cruiser, and one of the most extensive cruiser modernization in Europe, only comparable to the Colbert and Suffren in France, or the USN Cruisers of the Camberra class.

About the Montecuccoli


Launched in 1934, Raimondo Montecuccoli was the oldest of the large London treaty 'Condotierri' cruisers. At the armistice, Montecuccoli carried out 32 war missions covering 31,590 miles. During the co-belligerence period and until the end of the conflict, she participated in numerous missions of fast transport and repatriation of prisoners. After 1945 she was mothballed, pending her fate during peace negotiations. Granted eventually to Italy but only as a training cruiser, she was available for modernization.

R. Montecuccoli resumed her activity from 1947 until 1949 and after a maintenance refit involving minor changes, the admiralty prepared a design fit to best perform her new task of training ship for the students of the Naval Academy of Livorno. She was to carry out summer school cruises from the summer of 1949 in the Mediterranean and beyond, like to Santa Cruz de Tenerife in 1951, London in 1952. In 1953, she resumed her activities in the Mediterranean while the conversion draft was ready. In 1954, she was taken in hands for a reconstruction. This was performed by the Arsenal of La Spezia from June 1954. These modification made her more suitable as a training ship, fully compatible with NATO requirements as Italy just entered the organization. As completed, she was given the new serial number C552 acccording to NATO classification (C for cruiser).

Changes involved the elimination of two boilers, of the nº2 turret, together with its barbette and ammunition storage, the 100mm/47 AA turrets and their FCS, the four twin 20 mm/70 Breda machine guns, while their 37/54 twin mounts. They were all replaced by new 40/56 "Bofors" mounts. Electronics was installed for the first time, a surface radar, aerial surveillance radar, new fire control radars and a new firing center were installed. Fuel tanks were increased by 300 m³ with the space gained in the elimination of two boilers, giving an additional 615 miles of range. The appearance changed much, in particular for the central section of ​​the ship, forward funnel and command bridge remodelled and a sturdy lattice mast installed to carry the radars and antennas and associated equipments.

Alternating fleet exercises activity with training cruises, Montecuccoli visited Copenhagen in 1955, Montreal, Boston and Philadelphia in 1958, Helsinki in 1961. The started a circumnavigation of the world from 1 September 1956 to 1 March 1957 and represented Italy in Australia in conjunction with the Melbourne Olympics at the time the Suez Canal was closed. By then under command of captain Gino Birindelli, she visited 34 ports on four continents, for a grand total of 33,170 miles. She made one more circumnavigtion, this time of the African continent in 1963, but her age meant she was disarmed in Taranto on 31 May 1964. She was mothballed for a time, then towed to La Spezia and in 1972 scrapped for good. In 1965 she was replaced as a training ship by the AA destroyer escort (ex cruiser) San Giorgio.

Raimondo Montecuccoli in 1960
Raimondo Montecuccoli in 1960
The Raimondo Montecuccoli in 1960.

Reconstruction of the Duca Degli Abruzzi (1949-51)

Together with her sister ship, Garibaldi, Cadorna and Montecuccoli, this was the cruiser force of postwar Italy, spared by events of war reparations. Luigi di Savoia Duca de Abruzzi was called the "cruiser of the exiles" as she carried the royal family of Italy into exile, when King Vittorio Emanuele III first left for Alexandria in Egypt, with the title of "Count of Pollenzo" after signing a formal abdication in Naples, in favor of his son Umberto II. After the war the first modernization came with the installation of an L.W.S. radar installed on top of the mainmast, of the British type 293, characterized by its crossed dipole frame antenna. Between 1951 and 1953, a more extensive modernization started.

New Electronics
The forward superstructure was completely rebuilt, giving a new aspect to the bridge and the conning tower, while a new and sturdier tripod mast was installed to carry the weight of a larger parabolic air-naval discovery radar of the type SK 42, later replaced in turned by the US-built AN/SPS-6 search radar. An odometer radar was also placed on the mainmast, used as an altitude rangefinder. The same was also installed on San Giorgio as modernized (ex-Capitani Romani class).

RN Luigi di Savoia Duca Degli Abruzzi
HD rendition of RN Luigi di Savoia Duca Degli Abruzzi in 1953

-The cruiser kept her armour and main artillery, the same ten 6-in guns in triple and twin turrets for and aft. However her AA was no longer relevant in the jet age. -The secondary armament therefore was deposed and replaced entirely by twenty-four 40mm/56 pompom guns in four quadruple mounts and four twin, but two 100 mm/47 mm twin guns were kept, aft. This constituted a new, more modern anti-aircraft armament for the 1950s standard.

The powerplant was modified as well, but no modernized. Priorities changed and the radius of action was now preferred to excessive speeds. Two boilers were retired, reducing the output and max speed to 28 knots.


Back in Action
On 26 October 1954, the cruiser was in Trieste, and departed escorted by the destroyers Granatiere, Artigliere and Grecale, back to Italy with the cheering crowd and great joy for the crews returning home. The ship took part in the parade of November 4, held in the presence of President Einaudi, with all ships exhibiting the great pavese, including the cruiser Montecuccoli, the TBs Libra and Cassiopea while Duke of Abruzzi remained in Trieste, Artigliere and Vespucci and the students of the Naval Academy of Livorno on board. Until 1956-57 she was the only full-time cruiser in the Navy, as Cadorna was decommissioned since 1951, Montecuccoli refitted as training ship and Garibaldi in reserve and planned in 1957 for reconstruction. In 1956, Andrea Doria was decommissioned and the Duke of Abruzzi became the headquarters C-in-C and flagship of the Italian Navy, the Marina Militare. In 1961, she was decommissioned, and her moderized sister Garibaldi took the role of flagship in her place.

1st Reconstruction of the Giuseppe Garibaldi (1951-53)

Guiseppe Garibaldi after her first refit in 1952
Giuseppe Garibaldi after her first refit in 1952

Modernization of the Garibaldi
Modernization of the Garibaldi
Modernization of the Garibaldi: In 1947 (top) and its 152 mm/55 guns and turrets removed during reconstruction

It would be plain false to see all four cruisers spared by the peace treaty operating together after the war: Cadorna was disarmed almost immediately after the war, while Montecuccoli now operated as training ship for the naval academy of Livorno, leaving the Garibaldi pair as active cruisers in the new Republican Marina Italiana.

Giuseppe Garibaldi was taken in hands after Abruzzi, but already in 1946 her torpedo tubes were removed as well as the catapults and aircraft facilities, now obsolete. A British type radio telemeter NSA-1 was installed. In 1947-1948, Garibaldi underwent a larger modernization, with minor changes in the superstructure and a reinforced foremast to accomodate an American SO 8 radar and a SK 42 parabolic radar on their respective platforms, also used by the San Marco, San Giorgio and her sister ship Duca degli Abruzzi, on a lowered mast. In place of the former TTs, two 100/47 mm guns were installed in 1947 for illumination while the secondary armament was completely overhauled:

It consisted in ten 100 mm/47 guns and six twin 37mm/ 54 plus four single 20mm/70 Oerlikon guns and four 20mm/65 mm Breda. Well prove, they were easy to use and maintain and came with a large variety of ammunitions, tracer, tracer-explosive, with time-fuse, and others.

Tests of the Bell 47
Tests of the Bell 47 (locally built as AB-47G on Garibaldi, 1953 in the gulf of Gaeta

Also, an helicopter platform was erected aft, just large enough to accomodate a Bell 47 helicopter. The latter started a testing campaigns of landing and take-off tests, off the coast of Gaeta during the summer of 1953. After the positive outcome Navy made anti-submarine helicopters standard on its destroyers and frigates, and fixed or telescopic hangars depending on the space available. The need for helicopters would just grow exponentially as much was perceived the Soviet submarine threat, which started to appear in the Mediterranean in the 1960s. Some indeed were spotted coming from the Albanian base in Valona. Thus began the development of a new category of helicopter ASW ships, pioneered by Italy. The Bergamini-class frigates much later were a development of a serie of ships started with the first helicopter cruisers in the world, the Doria-class, which pioneered arrangements later adopted for the much larger Vittorio Veneto and became standard for all subsequent constructions.

Caio Duilio of the Doria class helicopter cruiser
The Caio Duilio of the Doria class helicopter cruiser. Bell 47 tests performed on the Garibaldi allowed this radical new construction.

Further modifications were done on the main bridge superstructure, with the armour partially removed, and new electronic surveillance arrays of American type, plus the navigation radar type S.O. 13, later replaced by the domestic S.M.A. model later, and an air search radar with a large parabolic antenna mounted aft on a dedicated lattice mast.
After a short operational life during which she participated in the large scale inter-allied GRAND SLAM exercise, Garibaldi was placed in the reserve in 1953, pending her fate. By December 1954, decision had been taken to convert her completely in La Spezia Arsenal as a missile cruiser.

Garibaldi as a missile cruiser (1960)

In 1957, Garibaldi was scheduled for a scrapping of all the superstructure and most of the hull interior, to left it bare, down to the engine floor level. The transformation work started at the end of 1957 while Cadorna already was disarmed and Montecuccoli in training, leaving the Duca degli Abruzzi aas the sole Italian cruiser in service, used as flagship after the Duilio was disarmed in 1956.

The design of the reconstruction at superstructure level implied new arrangement for the future electronics, heavier masts to support large aerials, antennas and radars, also making provision for a Terrier missile system, which was the main goal of the whole operation and occupied a large portion aft of the hull, also with fire control systems and a central operation. The rest of the hull was also modified to include a new, modern AA arrangement so the old 6-in turrets, barbettes, storage ammunitions were removed. Lots of space were left for future modular adaptations as well.

The Arsenal of La Spezia was tasked for this radical reconstruction, completed in 1961 (1957-1961, so five years). It was certainly one of the most radical reconstruction of a WW2 cruiser in Europe, on par with the French Colbert in 1970, the Dutch De Ruyter class or the Swedish Gota Lejon, the British Tiger class, in less extent. But their most direct reference was the reconstruction of the Albany class fleet escorts, former Baltimore class hulls recommissioned in 1962, with a major difference, the latter were much larger and displaced twice as much, and accommodated several missile systems at once, making them far more complex overall.

Reconstruction of the hull

A model of the Garibaldi as rebuilt

After her radical reconstruction, Garibaldi reached a standard displacement of 9,802 tons, 11,350 fully loaded (vs. 9387 t/11262 t FL in 1937), her keel however slightly less deep at 6.7 meters vs. 6.8 originally. The only part not modified to a great extent was the hull, which retained its original dimensions and configuration. Needless to say, most of the armour was gone, therefore the heavier displacement gives some clues about the equipments that were added to the ship. The hull was lower than the original but kept its forecastle. The aft section of the hull and the stern were rebuilt, notably with a transom stern. The closing of all openings but on the upper forecastle deck allowed the installation of a ventilation and air conditioning system in closed loop, which allowed an efficient NBC defense system, relevant under modern NATO standards. There was a massive superstructure aft starting at the forecastle step, about 90 meters long and this large deckhouse housed the complex Terrier missile system. The volume was increased as well as the ship's hydrodynamic trim.

What remained concerned only sensitive part of the ship, which was originally slightly better armed than the earlier Condotierre series and optimized against 6-in shells only. The main belt, armoured deck longitudinal and transverse bulkheads were all removed, but armour was kept in places:
Vertical armor deck 100 mm, partial central belt 40 mm (notably around the new central operation), artillery turret faces and barbettes 135 mm, internal conning tower 140 mm. The major change for the vertical armor was the commission of a add-on 30 mm stray over the machinery, steering room and ammo storage.

Powerplant and performances

Two boilers of the aft boiler room were removed, while the other engine rooms were unchanged, one funnel eliminated by truncating the exhausts. Exhaust pipes of the six remaining boilers were therefore modified, and auxiliary made, to widen the base of the single funnel. The power dropped to 85,000 hp, top speed to 30 knots (55,56 km/h), which was still very reasonable. This coincided with a reduction in fuel consumption, so the Garibaldi could now reach 4,500 nm at 18 knots (vs. 4,125 nm at 13 kts), while revised arrangements limited maximum fuel capacity, down to 1,700 tons. The boilers were completely overhauled and cleaned anew, as well as all the gauges and indicators, pipes, and the turbines disassembled, cleaned and reassembled. If the revised powerplant did not bring much change, less speed and more range, it was not sufficient to provided the power-hungry new electronics installations.

To cope with the energy needs it was necessary to install four Tosi-Brown Boveri turbo-alternators, in addition to two Fiat-Brown Boveri diesel-alternators generating alternating current at 440V for a total of 4,000 Kw, and overall power onboard of 89,000 shp (70 000 kW). It was a provision for future revisions, and sufficient to illuminate a city of 200,000 inhabitants.
2-views of the cruiser
2-views of the cruiser (src navypedia)

Gun Armament

The Garibaldi was yet not a pure missile cruiser, but her armament was modern and dual purpose, although still giving her a silhouette reminiscent of the old conventional vessel. As rebuilt, she was indeed given two twin turrets, with cannone da 135mm/45. This was completed by eight single cannone da 76mm/62 by OTO Melara for pure AA defense, all arranged along the forecastle superstructure bridge.

135/45 mm guns: Distributed in two twin turrets forward these were the same dual purpose guns designed in 1942-43 for the Capitani Romani class and later fitted on the rebuilt Battleship Duilio. The 135mm/45 guns, which in the Garibaldi were installed in fully automated turrets. can be considered the best Italian naval guns in the Second World War, with a range of 19.6 km and a rate of fire of 6 shots per minute, and were capable of performing very precise shots, but, with an elevation of 45 ° however, they lacked satisfactory anti-aircraft capability, if not a barrage. In 1968 the barrels were lengthened and the 135/53 guns had to be installed on the Audace, then in design. The turrets were installed in a superfiring configuration forward, superficially looking like their former artillery. Due to the age of this weapons system, it was seen as a compromise for those in the Navy still trusting a relatively heavy artillery. The Doria and Veneto class will not have any such system and relied on smaller SAMs and antimissile systems. So that was a transitional move.

76mm/62 guns: These were newly designed and extensively tested on the Carabiniere, a rebuilt postwar destroyer, and was introduced to the Navy at large during the sixties. It was soon found onboard the Bergamini class destroyers and Alpino class frigates, Doria and the Vittorio Veneto class cruisers. It was replaced in turn by the classic OTO Melara "super rapido" 76mm/62 Compact first installed on the Audace class destroyers. The 76/62 MMI "Enlarged" were a pure dual purpose weapon, with water-cooled barrels, and mixing electric and hydraulic power for elevation and traverse, with manual backup in emergency. Its range was just 18.4 km with HE shells (6.296 kg) at 45 °, while at 85° it dropped to 4km. Traverse rate was 70°/s, and elevation rate 40°/s. The turret accommodated a single crew member. The Cannone da 76/62 from OTO was the evolution of the SMP-3 model which had been embarked on the introduced first on the Albatros class corvettes of 1955. There was also a tandem version with overlapping barrels of this weapons system tested on the Centauro class frigates, but it was not successful and not adopted elsewhere.

Missile armament

Garibaldi in venice
Rear view of the Garibaldi and its Terrier missile system. The reload system took most of the aft part of the ship.

It was quite impressive as well, with missiles that had unique capabilities, rarely seen outside the US. It consisted in:
-A twin launcher for the RIM Terrier SAM
-Four UGM-27 Polaris in silos (from 1967)

The the installation in an aft deckhouse of the American Terrier missile system, made the Garibaldi the first European missile cruiser, and a landmark for NATO history. The origins of this transformation work was the need of a protective bubble against Soviet bombers, so from medium to long-range. It was needed a missile system capable of launching two double-stage missiles, simultaneously and independently guided towards their own targets. Terrier missiles were at the time the best SAM available, and only the USA possessed them. Other systems were used such like the Bundesmarine with the Lütjens class destroyers and their Tartar SAM. The large Terrier derived from Talos but then evolved independently. More on this on the cold war early USN missile cruisers. The Terrier launched a relatively smaller missile than the Talos, with small opening fins maximizing range and speed and reducing drag. The Garibaldi was fitted with the standard Mk 10 twin launcher ramp also used on USN cruisers, and fully stabilized on three axis, so proven on any sea state. The later Vittorio Veneto adopted the Mk 20 Aster also seen on the Belknap class. Italy was the only country for which these missiles were exported, showing the close ties and trust between this country and the USA.
For propulsion, the Terrier had an acceleration booster and additional solid fuel rocket at the rear and carried a 100 kg fragmentation warhead which was placed at the middle of the missile body. First tests started at the ship's first post-reconstruction cruise on the US coast, on 11 November 1962 in San Juan of Puerto Rico, and this was also the first missile launch by any Italian unit.

The Terrier launch system was assisted by an equally modern electronics and guiding suite, also built in the US and adapted for the Italian cruiser. This was the "Argos" 5000 radar, tasked on locking the target at long distance, and passing the info to a three-dimensional AN/SPS-39 radar which calculated the direction, distance altitude with precision, the data passed on the missile to setup its course. The Terrier's own guidance systems guided the missing through electromagnetic emission to the target. On board operations of all armaments were managed in the Combat Operations Center, processing process data acquisition and coordination. The Terrier missile were stowed below the twin launcher aft, as in the Boston and Canberra, while subsequent cruisers later had horizontal chain reload systems. According to US practice, the stowage contained as much as 72 missiles, but probably less due to the reduced dimensions of the Italian cruiser compared to its USN counterpart.

Two rows of Polaris missile tubes were sunk into the deck abaft the Terrier magazine.

The Polaris missiles were another additions made during a partial reconstruction and modernization in 1966-67. All four silos were installed aft of the ship, close to the stern. These UGM-27 systems were the first SLBM fitted on USN Submarines, entering service in 1961 and also used by the British. It was a long range ballistic vector which usually could receive a nuclear warhead. Its first stage used an Aerojet General Solid-fuel rocket and the second stage a solid propellant Hercules rocket. Range was 2,500 nautical miles (4,600 km), enough to strike from the Aegean sea most cities in Ukraine and southern Russia. Its trajectory and speed of 8,000 mph (13,000 km/h) make it unstoppable. It also used thrust vectoring for corrections and accuracy was about 3,000 feet (910 m). This made the Garibaldi the only European surface ship fitted with such system. Details of their adoption is still classified, but it is agreed to be part of a US-led NATO program at the time to more largely distribute the Polaris, including onboard cruisers. Italy did not had any deterrence capability at the time, so basically the Polaris onboard the Garibaldi would have been re-equipped in emergency with nuclear warhead in case of war, "on loan" by US Forces in a nuclear war context. Their accuracy compared to the later Harpoon, was poor, so using conventional warheads would have made little sense. Nevertheless, their installation was made in parrallel to the installation in Italy of the Jupiter SLBMs, the Polaris being their sea-going equivalent, as a compensation for the retirement of Turkish missiles after the Cuban missile crisis.

New electronics

Radars and FCS on board the Garibaldi, aft view

The main onboard electronics on the cruiser took place between two large quadruple lattice masts, tailor built for the Garibaldi and reused on the Doria class cruisers. On the first of the two pylons at the top of the bridge-tower complex (reminiscent of the converted Boston class cruisers) was installed a three-dimensional frequency scanning air surveillance radar (FRESCAN) AN/SPS-39. It was commonly adopted on first NATO missile launchers and coupled with the Westinghouse AN/SPS-6 two-dimensional air-naval surveillance radar. Other platforms supported the SET-6B surface surveillance radar and SMA CFL3-C25 navigation radar. The second pylon aft of the funnel carried the large, domestic Selenia Argos 5000 aerial detection radar. Under favourable conditions, frequent in the Mediterranean, it could identify targets up to 500 miles.

The AN/SPS-39 FRESCAN was the only three-dimensional radar excluding the British Type 984 (much heavier, Victorious and Hermes CVs) and only such system in Europe. It used a single antenna to obtain the relative data at altitude, range and bearing or incoming aircraft and was equipped with lightweight electronic stabilizers ensuring stale operation regardless of the roll and pitch. The Westinghouse AN/SPS-6 radar had a range of 250 km and registered itself in a decisive turning point towards standardization and modernization of radars from 1954 in the Italian Navy. The Garibaldi embarked the system at the end of the transformation work. It was also carried by the Gabbiano class corvettes.

The top of the deckhouse aft supported two Sperry-RCA AN/SPG-55 lighting and guidance radars managing the twin Mk 9 Mod.1 launch Terrier launchers. It was stabilized on three axes and the firing control systems for guns was of domestic production, also by Selenia.

Forward electronics, radars and FCS on the rebuilt bridge as of 1961

Second career of the Garibaldi (1961-1972)

Garibaldi 1960
Garibaldi in 1960, right after her second modernization

At the end of her reconstruction, Garibaldi was recommissioned on November 3, 1961 and sailed to Taranto on February 5, 1962. By September 1962, she carried out a first series of tests in Italy, still without her electronic equipments and missiles. She was sent to the United States for to represent Italy and the final missile arrangements installations, including the guiding systems and radars, loading systems, followed by the completion of the training phase. In early November 1963 she moved to San Juan of Puerto Rico, started her missile launch tests in the waters of the Caribbean Sea. This started on 11 November 1962 and this was successful campaign. She returned to Italy on 23 December 1962, and the next year she was modified, lengthening her remaining funnel to prevent exhaust gases interfering with the new electronic equipment, also inclined and fitted with a remodelled funnel cap, conducting smoke aft. Full operational readiness combat flag was delivered in Naples on 10 June 1964, by the ANMI group of Rome to the commander, Captain Aldo Baldini, ceremony attended by the Commander in Chief Admiral Alessandro Michelagnoli and the Undersecretary of Defense, Natale Santero.

The Garibaldi served for ten years in the first phase of her deployment, as a command ship and flagship of the Italian Naval Squadron, participating in training and representation activities in the Mediterranean and abroad. Garibaldi (C551) would be replaced twenty-four years later by the light aircraft carrier of the same name and numeral, Giuseppe Garibaldi (C551). The Garibaldi was assigned to the 2nd naval group, 2nd Naval Division at Taranto and between the fall of 1964 and 1965 she underwent maintenance work. The massive aft Argos 5000 radar antenna was replaced by an upgraded smaller and and lighter model, notably in order to lessen wind resistance. Her base was built directly above the former armoured command tower. There was another maintenance period between 25 August 1966 and 20 April 1967, made at La Spezia. In this, the Microlambda SET-6B radar was replaced by the new MM/SPQ surface discovery and navigation radar which had a 50 km range and was produced in Italy. The quad foremast was modified, more compact and the support mast for the Terriers radar FCS were moved at the end of ​​the deckhouse, while wells for Polaris missiles were installed.

On June 4, 1968, Garibaldi took part in a naval parade in the Gulf of Naples for the 50th anniversary of the victory in World War I. This was the largest naval parade in Italy after ww2 and she hosted for the occasion the President of the Republic Saragat accompanied by the Minister of Defense Tremelloni, and Diplomatic Advisor Francesco Malfatti, military adviser Admiral Virgilio Spigai. The reception was hosted by the "Basso Tirreno" maritime department head for Naples, admiral Raffaele Barbera. The ship then proceeded to the parade under command of Captain Antonio Scialdone and Admiral Roselli Lorenzini.

Traditions and history: The Garibaldi crossing the schoolship Amerigo Vespucci off naples in 1968
Traditions and history: The Garibaldi crossing the schoolship Amerigo Vespucci off naples in 1968

The Garibaldi launching a Terrier, side view
The Garibaldi launching a Terrier, side view

The Garibaldi flew during the parade the presidential banner on her main flagpole, and sailed with San Giorgio off the gulf, proceeding towards Procida, Ischia and Capo Miseno, and close to the Vittorio Veneto as the latter was prepared to replace her as flagship in the future. This parade was a national event where most of the government and military officials of all branches were also present. It was followed nation-wide, retransmitted in real time by the RAI. Between 1968 and 1971, Garibaldi resumed her training exercises, but budget cuts decided of her fate as well as pending replacement by Veneto and an ageing weapons system. The Terria was a first-gen SAM and already replaced in the USN by the standard. There was no plan to rearm her with this system, which would have needed extensive modifications.

As a consequence the admiralty chose to program the Garibaldi's decommission. She was disarmed on February 20, 1971, mostly officially based on budgetary restraints. In February 1970, a press conference was held on board the Garibaldi by the squadron C-in-C Admiral Gino Birindelli, denounced the Navy budget cuts and the state of a profound moral and material malaise for the staff in this ship. Birindelli's declarations triggered many reactions in the political class but restrictions were maintained and the new Chief of Staff Admiral Virgilio Spigai was forced to withdraw the cruiser from service, justifying the decision as being the oldest in service and for maintenance costs, even ten years after her conversion. This went not well along a tense situation in the Mediterranean, following the Yom Kippur war and increasing Soviet presence. By November 1973, the new Chief of Staff of the Navy, Admiral Gino De Giorgi, published the "White Book of the Navy" in which he underlined the impossible commitments of Marina Militare in possible war scenarios in the region, and towards its obligation to NATO, due to massive budget cuts. The document however had some influence in the Naval Law of 1975 starting a substantial modernization of the fleet.

Authors HD Illustration of the Garibaldi
Author's HD Illustration of the Garibaldi as completed in 1964

Many experts, in Italy and abroad, and inside NATO, esteemed the retirement of the ship after a costly and long modernization after just a decade of service was even compounded by the useless Polaris installation, also expensive; In good conditions, Giuseppe Garibaldi was however suitable to be used as a museum ship, given her great historical significance. She was indeed the first European missile cruiser and first surface ship worldwide equipped with ballistic missiles and had a lot of significance for the operational and logistic structures modernization of the modern Italian Navy. The Montecuccoli which was the first Italian cruiser to circumnavigate the globe was also at her time expected to be preserved. The well-trained crew of the Garibaldi would find its place nevertheless in the new helicopter/missile cruiser Vittorio Veneto, as new flagship of the fleet. The Garibaldi was discarded on November 16, 1976 and by November 3, 1978 crossed under the Ponte Girevole and through the Taranto canal to reach La Spezia, for demolition work to proceed. It went on at the Cantieri del Tirreno in Genoa.

garibaldi 1978
The Garibaldi in 1978, pending scrapping

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Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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